This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
On Optimization of E-Textile Systems Using Redundancy and Energy-Aware Routing
June 2006 (vol. 55 no. 6)
pp. 745-756
Recent advances in the electronic device manufacturing technology have opened many research opportunities in pervasive computing. Among the emerging design platforms, "electronic textiles” (or e-textiles) make possible a wide variety of novel applications, ranging from consumer electronics to aerospace devices. Due to the harsh environment of e-textile components and battery size limitations, low-power and redundancy techniques are critical for obtaining successful e-textile applications. In this paper, we consider a platform which consists of dedicated components for e-textiles, including computational modules, dedicated transmission lines, and thin-film batteries on fiber substrates. As a theoretical contribution, we address the issue of the energy-aware routing for e-textile platforms and propose an efficient algorithm to solve it. Furthermore, we derive an analytical upper bound for determining the maximum number of achievable jobs over all possible e-textile routing frameworks. From a practical standpoint, for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher, the routing technique we propose achieves close to or more than 75 percent of this theoretical upper bound. Moreover, compared to the non-energy-aware counterpart, the new routing technique increases the number of encryption jobs by one order of magnitude.

[1] E.R. Post and M. Orth, “Smart Fabric, or Wearable Clothing,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers, pp. 167-168, Oct. 1997.
[2] E.R. Post, M. Orth, P.R. Russo, and N. Gershenfeld, “E-Broidery: Design and Fabrication of Textile-Based Computing,” IBM Systems J., vol. 39, nos. 3-4, pp. 840-860, 2000.
[3] M. Gorlick, “Electric Suspenders: A Fabric Power Bus and Data Network for Wearable Digital Devices,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers, pp. 114-121, Oct. 1999.
[4] D. Marculescu, R. Marculescu, N. Zamora, P. Stanley-Marbell, P.K. Khosla, S. Park, S. Jayaraman, S. Jung, C. Lauterbach, W. Weber, T. Kirstein, D. Cottet, J. Grzyb, G. Troester, M. Jones, T. Martin, and Z. Nakad, “Electronic Textiles: A Platform for Pervasive Computing,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 1995-2018, Dec. 2003.
[5] P. Stanley-Marbell, D. Marculescu, R. Marculescu, and P.K. Khosla, “Modeling, Analysis and Self-Management of Electronic Textiles,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 996-1010, Aug. 2003.
[6] D. Cottet, J. Grzyb, T. Kirstein, and G. Tröster, “Electrical Characterization of Textile Transmission Line,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 182-190, May 2003.
[7] FIPS 197, announced by Nat'l Inst. of Standards and Tech nology, Nov. 2001.
[8] L. Benini, G. Castelli, A. Macii, E. Macii, M. Poncino, and R. Scarsi, “Discrete-Time Battery Models for System-Level Low-Power Design,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Systems, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 630-640, Oct. 2001.
[9] T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, and R.L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms, chapter 26.2, pp. 558-564, first ed. McGraw-Hill, 1990.
[10] B.J. Neudecker, N.J. Dudney, and J.B. Bates, “Lithium-Free Thin-Film Battery with In Situ Plated Li Anode,” J. Electrochemical Soc., vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 517-523, 2000.
[11] B.J. Neudecker, M.H. Benson, and B.K. Emerson, “Power Fibers: Thin-Film Batteries on Fiber Substrates,” http://www.darpa. mil/dso/thrust/matdev/ smfmPresent.html, Nov. 2005.
[12] M. Maleki, K. Dantu, and M. Pedram, “Lifetime Prediction Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., pp. 1185-1190, Mar. 2003.
[13] J.-H. Chang and L. Tassiulas, “Maximum Lifetime Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 609-619, Aug. 2004.
[14] T. Ohira and R. Sawatari, “Phase Transition in a Computer Network Traffic Model,” Physical Rev. E, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 193-195, July 1998.
[15] S. Valverde and R.V. Sole, “Self-Organized Critical Traffic in Parallel Computer Networks,” Physica A, vol. 312, no. 4, pp. 636-648, Sept. 2002.
[16] R.V. Sole and S. Valverde, “Information Transfer and Phase Transitions in a Model of Internet Traffic,” Physica A, vol. 289, no. 4, pp. 595-605, Jan. 2001.
[17] S. Park, K. Mackenzie, and S. Jayaraman, “The Wearable Motherboard: A Framework for Personalized Mobile Information Processing (PMIP),” Proc. ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conf., pp. 170-174, June 2002.
[18] I. Locher, T. Kirstein, and G. Troester, “Routing Methods Adapted to e-Textiles,” Proc. Int'l Microelectronics and Packaging Soc., Nov. 2004.
[19] J. Rantanen, T. Karinsalo, M. Makinen, P. Talvenmaa, M. Tasanen, and J. Vanhala, “Smart Clothing for the Arctic Environment,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers, pp. 15-23, Oct. 2000.
[20] Q. Li, J.A. Aslam, and D. Rus, “Online Power-Aware Routing in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 97-107, July 2001.
[21] V. Rodoplu and T.H. Meng, “Minimum Energy Mobile Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1333-1344, Aug. 1999.
[22] S. Singh, M. Woo, and C.S. Raghavendra, “Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 181-190, Oct. 1998.
[23] J. Wieselthier, G. Nguyen, and A. Ephremides, “Energy Limited Wireless Networking with Directional Antennas: The Case of Session-Based Multicasting,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 190-199, June 2002.
[24] C.-K. Toh, “Maximum Battery Life Routing to Support Ubiquitous Mobile Computing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 138-147, June 2001.
[25] D.S. Milojicic, F. Douglis, Y. Paindaveine, R. Wheeler, and S. Zhou, “Process Migration,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 241-299, Sept. 2000.
[26] T. Martin, M. Jones, J. Edmison, T. Sheikh, and Z. Nakad, “Modeling and Simulating Electronic Textile Applications,” Proc. ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conf. Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems, pp. 10-19, June 2004.

Index Terms:
Electronic textile, energy-aware routing, pervasive computing.
Citation:
Jung-Chun Kao, Radu Marculescu, "On Optimization of E-Textile Systems Using Redundancy and Energy-Aware Routing," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 745-756, June 2006, doi:10.1109/TC.2006.86
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.