This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Improving Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems by Adaptive Connection Establishment
September 2005 (vol. 54 no. 9)
pp. 1091-1103
Li Xiao, IEEE
Yunhao Liu, IEEE
In unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, the mechanism of a peer randomly joining and leaving a P2P network causes a topology mismatch between the P2P logical overlay network and the physical underlying network, incurring a large volume of redundant traffic in the Internet. In order to alleviate the topology mismatch problem, we propose Adaptive Connection Establishment (ACE), an algorithm for building an overlay multicast tree among each source node and the peers within a certain diameter from the source peer and further optimizing the neighbor connections that are not on the tree while retaining the search scope. Our simulation study shows that this approach can effectively solve the mismatch problem and significantly reduce P2P traffic. We further study the trade-offs between the topology optimization rate and the information exchange overhead by changing the diameter used to build the tree.

[1] BRITE, http://www.cs.bu.edubrite/, 2003.
[2] Gnutella, http:/, 2003.
[3] KaZaA, http:/, 2003.
[4] V. Almeida, A. Bestavros, M. Crovella, and A.d. Olivera, “Characterizing Reference Locality in the WWW,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Parallel and Distributed Information Systems (PDIS), 1996.
[5] R. Bhagwan, S. Savage, and G.M. Voelker, “Understanding Availability,” Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '03), 2003.
[6] L. Breslau, P. Cao, L. Fan, G. Phillips, and S. Shenker, “Web Caching and Zipf-Like Distributions: Evidence and Implications,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1999.
[7] T. Bu and D. Towsley, “On Distinguishing between Internet Power Law Topology Generators,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2002.
[8] Y. Chawathe, S. Ratnasamy, L. Breslau, N. Lanham, and S. Shenker, “Making Gnutella-Like P2P Systems Scalable,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2003.
[9] J. Chu, K. Labonte, and B. Levine, “Availability and Locality Measurements of Peer-to-Peer File Systems,” Proc. ITCom: Scalability and Traffic Control in IP Networks II Conf., 2002.
[10] Y. Chu, S.G. Rao, and H. Zhang, “A Case for End System Multicast,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, 2000.
[11] E. Cohen and S. Shenker, “Replication Strategies in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2002.
[12] P. Ganesan, Q. Sun, and H. Garcia-Molina, “Apocrypha: Making P2P Overlays Network-Aware,” technical report, Stanford Univ., 2004.
[13] B. Krishnamurthy and J. Wang, “Topology Modeling via Cluster Graphs,” Proc. SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Workshop, 2001.
[14] Y. Liu, X. Liu, L. Xiao, L.M. Ni, and X. Zhang, “Location-Aware Topology Matching in Unstructured P2P Systems,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004.
[15] Y. Liu, Z. Zhuang, L. Xiao, and L.M. Ni, “AOTO: Adaptive Overlay Topology Optimization in Unstructured P2P Systems,” Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2003.
[16] Y. Liu, Z. Zhuang, L. Xiao, and L.M. Ni, “A Distributed Approach to Solving Overlay Mismatch Problem,” Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2004.
[17] Q. Lv, P. Cao, E. Cohen, K. Li, and S. Shenker, “Search and Replication in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 16th ACM Int'l Conf. Supercomputing, 2002.
[18] E.P. Markatos, “Tracing A Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer System: An Hour in the Life of Gnutella,” Proc. Second IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Cluster Computing and the Grid, 2002.
[19] D.A. Menasce and L. Kanchanapalli, “Probabilistic Scalable P2P Resource Location Services,” ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Rev., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 48-58, 2002.
[20] A. Nakao, L. Peterson, and A. Bavier, “A Routing Underlay for Overlay Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2003.
[21] V.N. Padmanabhan and L. Subramanian, “An Investigation of Geographic Mapping Techniques for Internet Hosts,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2001.
[22] S. Patro and Y.C. Hu, “Transparent Query Caching in Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks,” Proc. 17th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2003.
[23] M. Ripeanu, A. Iamnitchi, and I. Foster, “Mapping the Gnutella Network,” IEEE Internet Computing, 2002.
[24] J. Ritter, “Why Gnutella Can't Scale. No, Really,”, 2001.
[25] S. Saroiu, P. Gummadi, and S. Gribble, “A Measurement Study of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems,” Proc. Multimedia Computing and Networking (MMCN), 2002.
[26] S. Saroiu, K.P. Gummadi, R.J. Dunn, S.D. Gribble, and H.M. Levy, “An Analysis of Internet Content Delivery Systems,” Proc. Fifth Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation, 2002.
[27] M.T. Schlosser and S.D. Kamvar, “Availability and Locality Measurements of Peer-to-Peer File Systems,” Proc. ITCom: Scalability and Traffic Control in IP Networks, 2002.
[28] S. Sen and J. Wang, “Analyzing Peer-to-Peer Traffic across Large Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Workshop, 2002.
[29] K. Sripanidkulchai, “The Popularity of Gnutella Queries and Its Implications on Scalability,” dee/research/ p2pgnutella.html, 2001.
[30] H. Tangmunarunkit, R. Govindan, S. Jamin, S. Shenker, and W. Willinger, “Network Topol-ogy Generators: Degree-Based vs. Structural,” Proc. SIGCOMM '02, 2002.
[31] Y. Xie and D. O'Hallaron, “Locality in Search Engine Queries and Its Implications for Caching,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2002.
[32] Z. Xu, C. Tang, and Z. Zhang, “Building Topology-Aware Overlays Using Global Soft-State,” Proc. 23rd Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2003.
[33] B. Yang and H. Garcia-Molina, “Efficient Search in Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 22nd Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2002.
[34] Z. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Xiao, and L.M. Ni, “Hybrid Periodical Flooding in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing (ICPP), 2003.

Index Terms:
Index Terms- Peer-to-peer systems, overlay, topology mismatch problem, distributed approach, Adaptive Connection Establishment.
Li Xiao, Yunhao Liu, Lionel M. Ni, "Improving Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems by Adaptive Connection Establishment," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 1091-1103, Sept. 2005, doi:10.1109/TC.2005.146
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.