Issue No.05 - May (2005 vol.54)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TC.2005.82
Reducing energy consumption is an important issue for data centers. Among the various components of a data center, storage is one of the biggest energy consumers. Previous studies have shown that the average idle period for a server disk in a data center is very small compared to the time taken to spin down and spin up. This significantly limits the effectiveness of disk power management schemes. This article proposes several power-aware storage cache management algorithms that provide more opportunities for the underlying disk power management schemes to save energy. More specifically, we present an offline energy-optimal cache replacement algorithm using dynamic programming, which minimizes the disk energy consumption. We also present an offline power-aware greedy algorithm that is more energy-efficient than Belady's offline algorithm (which minimizes cache misses only). We also propose two online power-aware algorithms, PA-LRU and PB-LRU. Simulation results with both a real system and synthetic workloads show that, compared to LRU, our online algorithms can save up to 22 percent more disk energy and provide up to 64 percent better average response time. We have also investigated the effects of four storage cache write policies on disk energy consumption.
Power management, disk storage, storage cache replacement, write policies.
Qingbo Zhu, Yuanyuan Zhou, "Power-Aware Storage Cache Management", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.54, no. 5, pp. 587-602, May 2005, doi:10.1109/TC.2005.82