This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A Systematic Approach to the Design of Distributed Wearable Systems
August 2004 (vol. 53 no. 8)
pp. 1017-1033

Abstract—Wearable computing has recently gained much popularity as an ambitious vision for future personalized mobile systems. Its aim is intelligent, environment aware systems unobtrusively embedded into the mobile environments of their users. With the combination of complex processing requirements, the necessity of placing sensors and input/output modules at different locations on the user's body, and stringent limits on size, weight, and battery capacity, the design of such systems is an inherently challenging problem. This paper demonstrates how systematic design and quantitative analysis can be applied to wearable architectures. We first present a model that allows various factors influencing the design of a wearable system to be incorporated into formal cost metrics. In particular, we show how to consistently incorporate specific wearable factors such as device placement requirements, ergonomics, and dynamic workload profiles into the model. We then discuss how efficient estimation algorithms can be extended and applied to the evaluation of different architectures with respect to our cost metrics. Finally, we discuss quantitative results from a proof-of-concept case study showing the trade offs between different architectures for a given wearable scenario. Summarized, this paper demonstrates how the description and the design of wearable systems can be put on a systematic, formal basis allowing us to treat them similar as conventional embedded systems.

[1] M. Weiser, The Computer for the 21st Century Scientific Am., vol. 265, no. 3, pp. 66-75, Sept. 1991.
[2] S. Mann, Wearable Computing as Means for Personal Empowerment Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Wearable Computing (ICWC), May 1998.
[3] A. Pentland, Wearable Intelligence Scientific Am., vol. 276, no. 1es1, Nov. 1998.
[4] T. Starner, "The Challenges of Wearable Computing: Parts 1 and 2," IEEE Micro, vol. 21, no. 4, July 2001, pp. 44-52 and 54-67.
[5] T. Starner, The Challenges of Wearable Computing: Part 2 IEEE Micro, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 54-67, July/Aug. 2001.
[6] C. Plessl, R. Enzler, H. Walder, J. Beutel, M. Platzner, L. Thiele, and G. Tröster, The Case for Reconfigurable Hardware in Wearable Computing Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 299-308, Oct. 2003.
[7] A. Smailagic and D. Siewiorek, System Level Design as Applied to CMU Wearable Computers J. VLSI Signal Processing Systems for Signal, Image, and Video Technology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 251-263, July 1999.
[8] Charmed Technology, Inc., Homepage www.charmed.com, 2002.
[9] Xybernaut Corp., Xybernaut Wearable Systems www.xybernaut. com, 2002.
[10] A. Smailagic, D. Reilly, and D.P. Siewiorek, A System-Level Approach to Power/Performance Optimization in Wearable Computers Proc. IEEE CS Workshop VLSI (WVLSI), pp. 15-20, 2000.
[11] C. Baber, D.J. Haniff, and S.I. Woolley, Contrasting Paradigms for the Development of Wearable Computers IBM Systems J., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 551-565, 1999.
[12] M. Stemm and R. Katz, Measuring and Reducing Energy Consumption of Network Interfaces in Hand-Held Devices IEICE Trans. Comm., vol. E80-B, no. 8, pp. 1125-1131, Aug. 1997.
[13] W. Wolf, Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design, 2002.
[14] T. Blickle, J. Teich, and L. Thiele, System-Level Synthesis Using Evolutionary Algorithms Design Automation for Embedded Systems, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 23-58, Jan. 1998.
[15] R.K. Gupta, Co-Synthesis of Hardware and Software for Digital Embedded Systems, Aug. 1995.
[16] I. Karkowski and H. Corporaal, Design Space Exploration Algorithm for Heterogeneous Multi-Processor Embedded System Design Proc. 35th Design Automation Conf. (DAC), pp. 82-87, 1998.
[17] J. Liu, P.H. Chou, N. Bagherzadeh, and F. Kurdahi, A Constraint-Based Application Model and Scheduling Techniques for Power-Aware Systems Proc. Ninth Int'l Symp. Hardware/Software Codesign (CODES), pp. 153-158, 2001.
[18] K. Lahiri, A. Raghunathan, and S. Dey, System-Level Performance Analysis for Designing On-Chip Communication Architectures IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 768-783, 2001.
[19] G.D. Micheli, Synthesis and Optimization of Digital Circuits. McGraw-Hill, 1994.
[20] M. Eisenring, L. Thiele, and E. Zitzler, Handling Conflicting Criteria in Embedded System Design IEEE Design and Test of Computers, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 51-59, Apr.-June 2000.
[21] T. Austin, E. Larson, and D. Ernst, "SimpleScalar: An Infrastructure for Computer System Modeling," Computer, vol. 35, no. 2, Feb. 2002, pp. 59-67.
[22] R. Steinmetz and K. Nahrstedt, Multimedia: Computing, Communications&Applications. Prentice Hall, 1997.
[23] TMS320C3x General Purpose Application User Guide, Texas Intruments, 1998.
[24] ADSP-21000 Family Application Handbook Volume 1, Analog Devices, 1994.
[25] Z. Cvetanovic and D. Bhandarkar, “Performance Characterization of the Alpha 21164 Microprocessor Using TP and SPEC Workloads,” Proc. Second Int'l Symp. High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA '96), pp. 270-280, Feb. 1996.
[26] A. Sinha and A.P. Chandrakasan, JouleTrack A Web Based Tool for Software Energy Profiling Proc. 38th Design Automation Conf. (DAC), pp. 220-225, 2001.
[27] J. Pouwelse, K. Langendoen, and H. Sips, Dynamic Voltage Scaling on a Low-Power Microprocessor Proc. Seventh ACM Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom), pp. 251-259, 2001.
[28] L. Thiele, S. Chakraborty, M. Gries, and S. Künzli, Design Space Exploration of Network Processor Architectures Network Processor Design 2002: Design Principles and Practices, Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.
[29] E. Zitzler, M. Laumanns, and L. Thiele, SPEA2: Improving the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm for Multiobjective Optimization Proc. EUROGEN 2001 Evolutionary Methods for Design, Optimisation and Control with Applications to Industrial Problems, 2001.
[30] P. Lukowicz, U. Anliker, G. Tröster, S. Schwartz, and R. DeVaul, The WearARM Modular, Low-Power Computing Core IEEE Micro, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 16-28, May/June 2001.
[31] P. Lukowicz, H. Junker, M. Stäger, T. von Büren, and G. Tröster, WearNET: A Distributed Multi-Sensor System for Context Aware Wearables Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), 2002.
[32] T. Truman, T. Pering, and R. Brodersen, The Infopad Multimedia Terminal: A Portable Device for Wireless Information Access IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1073-1087, Oct. 1998.
[33] M. Kourogi, T. Kurata, and K. Sakaue, A Panorama-Based Method of Personal Positioning and Orientation and Its Real-Time Application for Wearable Computers Proc. Fifth Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers (ISWC), pp. 107-114, 2001.
[34] Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. Sematech Inc., 2001.
[35] C. Lee, M. Potkonjak, and W.H. Mangione-Smith, MediaBench: A Tool For Evaluating and Synthesizing Multimedia and Communications Systems Proc. 30th Ann. IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Microarchitecture, pp. 330-335, 1997.
[36] S.M. Smith and J.M. Brady, SUSAN A New Approach to Low Level Image Processing Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 45-78, May 1997.
[37] T. Wolf and M. Franklin, CommBench A Telecommunications Benchmark for Network Processors Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Performance Analysis of Systems and Software (ISPASS), pp. 154-162, 2000.
[38] J. Daemen and V. Rijmen, The Design of Rijndael, AES The Advanced Encryption Standard. Springer, 2002.
[39] W.H. Press, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, and B.P. Flannary, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, second ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, 199.2
[40] G. Stevens, CUG396 NNUTILS Neural Network C Users J., vol. 12, no. 2, Feb. 1994.

Index Terms:
Wearable computers, distributed architectures, evolutionary computing and genetic algorithms, modeling of computer architecture.
Citation:
Urs Anliker, Jan Beutel, Matthias Dyer, Rolf Enzler, Paul Lukowicz, Lothar Thiele, Gerhard Tr?ster, "A Systematic Approach to the Design of Distributed Wearable Systems," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1017-1033, Aug. 2004, doi:10.1109/TC.2004.36
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.