This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A General Stochastic Model for Dynamic Locking in Database Systems
March 2004 (vol. 53 no. 3)
pp. 308-319

Abstract—In this paper, we present a novel stochastic model to study the performances of the two-phase dynamic locking in database systems with no-waiting policy. It is a general stochastic model to describe the database environment and transaction states in detail. It deals with the nonuniform access, write-locking, read-locking, and multiple transaction classes in a unique way. In the analysis, we first solve the steady-state probability of the system. Then, we give the mean number of transactions with k locks, the mean total number of locks held by all transactions, the mean number of data granules locked by a transaction, the mean number of writelocks and readlocks held by a transaction, and the mean number of locked data granules in a database. These parameters provide more insight into the detailed behavior of transactions and database systems. Finally, we calculate the system throughput and restart rate, which are the two principal performance measures.

[1] P. Bernstein and E. Newcomer, Principles of Transaction Processing. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 1997.
[2] M.J. Carey, S. Krishnamurthy, and M. Livny, Load Control for Locking: the 'Half-and-Half' Approach Proc. Ninth ACM Principles of Data Systems Conf., pp. 72-84, 1990.
[3] P.A. Franaszek, J.R. Haritsa, J.T. Robinson, and A. Thomasian, "Distributed Concurrency Control Based on Limited Wait Depth," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 246-264, Nov. 1993.
[4] D. Gross, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory. New York: John Wiley&Sons, 1985.
[5] C.A. Hartzman, The Delay Due to Dynamic Two-Phase Locking IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, pp. 72-83, 1989.
[6] M. Hsu and B. Zhang, Performance Evaluation of Cautious Waiting ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 477-512, 1992.
[7] L. Kleinrock, Queueing Systems, Vol. 2: Computer Applications. New York: John Wiley&Sons, 1976.
[8] L. Kleinrock and R. Gail, Queueing Systems, Problems and Solutions. New York: John Wiley&Sons, 1996.
[9] Performance of Concurrency Mechanisms in Centralized Database Systems, V. Kumar, ed. Prentice Hall, 1996.
[10] M.F. Neuts, A Versatile Markovian Process J. Application Problems, vol. 16, pp. 764-779, 1979.
[11] D. Mitra, Probabilistic Models and Asymptotic Results for Concurrent Processing with Exclusive and Non-Exclusive Locks SIAM J. Computing,> vol. 14, pp. 1030-1051, 1985.
[12] D. Mitra and P.J. Weinberger, Probabilistic Models of Database Locking: Solutions, Computational Algorithms, and Asymptotics J. ACM, vol. 31, pp. 855-878, 1984.
[13] I.K. Ryu and A. Thomasian, Analysis of Database Performance with Dynamic Locking J. ACM, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 491-523, 1990.
[14] I.K. Ryu and A. Thomasian, “Performance Analysis of Dynamic Locking with the No-Waiting Policy,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, no. 7, July 1990.
[15] Y.C. Tay, N. Goodman, and R. Suri, Locking Performance in Centralized Database ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 10, pp. 415-462, 1985.
[16] Y.C. Tay, R. Suri, and N. Goodman, A Mean Value Performance Model for Locking in Database: The No-Waiting Case J. ACM, vol. 32, pp. 618-651, 1985.
[17] A. Thomasian and I.K. Ryu, A Recursive Solution Method to Analyze the Performance of Static Locking Systems IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, pp. 1147-1156, 1989.
[18] A. Thomasian, Two-Phase Locking Performance and Its Thrashing Behavior ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 579-625, 1993.
[19] A. Thomasian, On Realistic Modeling and Analysis of Lock Contention Information Systems, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 409-430, 1996.
[20] A. Thomasian, Database Concurrency Control: Methods, Performance, Analysis. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1996.
[21] A. Thomasian, Concurrency Control: Methods, Performance, and Analysis ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 71-119, 1998.
[22] J. Wang, J. Li, and K. Kameda, Simulation Studies on Concurrency Control in Parallel Transaction Processing Systems Parallel Computing, vol. 23, pp. 755-775, 1997.
[23] J. Wang, J. Li, and K. Kameda, Performance Study of Shared-Nothing Parallel Transaction Processing Systems Performance and Management of Complex Comm. Networks, T. Hasegawa, H. Takagi, and Y. Takahashi, eds., pp. 154-172, Chapman&Hall, 1998.
[24] P.S. Yu, Modeling and Analysis of Transaction Processing Systems Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 729, pp. 651-675, 1993.

Index Terms:
Concurrency control, database systems, modeling, performance, simulation, stochastic analysis, transaction processing, two-phase dynamic locking.
Citation:
Yong Jiang, Jie Li, Shoichi Nishimura, "A General Stochastic Model for Dynamic Locking in Database Systems," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 308-319, March 2004, doi:10.1109/TC.2004.1261837
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.