This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Performance of IP-Based Services over GPRS
June 2003 (vol. 52 no. 6)
pp. 727-741

Abstract—We examine the traffic-handling capabilities of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) with respect to supporting IP-based Internet services. We begin with an overview of GPRS in which we discuss its general characteristics, connection set-up procedures, and data transfer procedures, both for the reverse link and the forward link. We then present an analytical model to assess throughput of the reverse link as a function of the number of users connected and the distribution of user message lengths. Next, we investigate the capability of GPRS to support World Wide Web access using the analytical model. Specifically, we present a realistic scenario for user sessions operating under the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and we assess the transaction-handling capabilities as a function of the number of user sessions, taking into account network delays, forward link transmission, random access delay, and other factors. The results obtained by using the analytical model in both cases are verified by simulation. We also consider, via simulation, a scenario where both continuously backlogged users and users operating HTTP sessions are present. We find that, in the case of continuously backlogged users, an increase in the number of contention slots does not always translate to an increase in throughput, while, in the case of users operating HTTP sessions, the downlink serves as the main bottleneck in the system. We conclude with a discussion of some open issues in the design of GPRS-based Internet access.

[1] G. Brasche and B. Walke, "Concepts, Services, and Protocols of the New GSM Phase 2+ General Packet Radio Service," IEEE Comm., Vol. 35, No. 8, Aug. 1997, pp. 94-104.
[2] J. Cai and D.J. Goodman, “General Packet Radio Service in GSM,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, pp. 122-131, Oct. 1997.
[3] M. Meyer, TCP Performance over GPRS Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., Sept. 1999.
[4] S. Ni and S.-G. Haggman, GPRS Performance Estimation in GSM Circuit Switched Services and GPRS Shared Resource Systems Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., Sept. 1999.
[5] J. Sevanto, Multimedia Messaging Service for GPRS and UMTS Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., Sept. 1999.
[6] J. Ho, Y. Zhu, and S. Madhavapeddy, Throughput and Buffer Analysis for GSM General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., Sept. 1999.
[7] L.G. Roberts, Dynamic Allocation of Satellite Capacity through Packet Reservation AFIPS Conf. Proc., vol. 42, pp. 711-716, 1973.
[8] D.W. Davies, D.L.A. Barber, W.L. Price, and C.M. Solomonides, Computer Networks and Their Protocols. New York: John Wiley&Sons, 1979.
[9] M. Schwartz, Computer Communication Network Design and Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1977.
[10] R. Petrovic, J.N. Daigle, and P. Giacomazzi, Simulation of Reverse Channel of Narrowband PCS Proc. Virginia Tech's Fourth Symp. Wireless Personal Comm., pp. 22.1-22.12, June 1995.
[11] J.N. Daigle, P. Giacomazzi, and R. Petrovic, Contention Protocol Performance in Wireless Personal Communication Systems Proc. Personal, Indoor, Mobile Radio Comm. Systems, pp. 1112-1117, 1995.
[12] S. Bose and S.S. Rappaport, High-Capacity, Low-Delay Packet Broadcast Multiaccess IEEE Trans. Aerospace and Electonic Systems, vol. 16, pp. 830-838, Nov. 1980.
[13] I.-H. Chung and S.S. Rappaport, Diversity Reservation ALOHA Proc. IEEE Military Comm. Conf., pp. 402-407, 1989.
[14] I.-H. Chung and S.S. Rappaport, Diversity Reservation ALOHA Int'l J. Satellite Comm., vol. 10, pp. 47-60, 1992.
[15] A.C. Cleary and M. Paterakis, Design and Performance Evaluation of an RRA Scheme for Voice-Data Channel Access in Outdoor Microcellular Wireless Environments Mobile Network Applications, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 31-43, 1997.
[16] M. Ivanovich and F. Cameron, A Study of Deadlock Models for a Multiservice Medium Access Protocol Employing a Slotted Aloha Signalling Channel IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 800-811, Dec. 2000.
[17] R. Fantacci and S. Nannicini, Performance Evaluation of a Reservation TDMA Protocol for Voice/Data Transmission in Microcellular Systems IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 2404-2416, 2000.
[18] C. Bisdikian, On Reservation-Based Random Access MAC Protocols Proc. Int'l Conf. Telecomm. (ITC '98), pp. 324-328, June 1998.
[19] A. Chandra, V. Gummalla, and J.O. Limb, Wireless Medium Access Control Protocols IEEE Comm. Surveys and Tutorials, second quarter 2000.
[20] L.F Merakos and C. Bisdikian, Delay Analysis of the n-ary Stack Random Access Algorithm IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 34, pp. 931-942, Sept. 1988.
[21] C. Bisdikian et.al., "MLAP: A MAC Level Access Protocol for the HFC 802.14 Network," IEEE Communications Mag., Vol. 34, No. 3, March 1996, pp. 114-121.
[22] V. Chitre and J. Daigle, IP Traffic over GPRS An Internet Service Oriented Analysis Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., Sept. 1999.
[23] V. Chitre and J. Daigle, IP-Based Service over GPRS ACM Performance Evaluation Rev., Dec. 2000.
[24] V.A. Chitre, Traffic Issues in Supporting IP Services over GPRS MS thesis, Univ. of Mississippi, Dec. 1999.
[25] Y.-B. Lin and I. Chlamtac, Wireless and Mobile Network Architectures. New York: John Wiley&Sons, 2001.
[26] ETSI, GSM 03.60 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS): Service Description: Stage 2 v. 6.1.1, Release, 1997.
[27] ETSI, GSM 03.64 Overall Description of the GPRS Radio Interface, Stage 2 v. 6.0.1, Release, 1997.
[28] ETSI, GSM 04.60 Mobile Station (MS) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Interface: Radio Link Control/Medium Access Control (RLC/MAC) Protocol v. 6.1.0, Release, 1997.
[29] ETSI, GSM 04.64 Mobile Station Serving GPRS Support Node (MS-SGSN) Logical Link Control (LLC) Layer Specification v. 6.1.0, Release, 1997.
[30] ETSI, GSM 05.01 Physical Layer on the Radio Path: General Description v. 6.1.1, Release, 1997.
[31] ETSI, GSM 05.02 Multiplexing and Multiple Access on the Radio Path v. 6.2.0, Release, 1997.
[32] J. Heidemann, K. Obracza, and J. Touch, Modeling the Performance of HTTP over Several Transport Protocols IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, pp. 616-631, Oct. 1997.
[33] S.M. Ross, Introduction to Probability Models, fourth edi. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1993.
[34] D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1987.
[35] J.N. Daigle and K.H. Daigle, Channel Capacity Assessment for GPRS Proc. Comm. Networks and Distributed Systems Conf., Jan. 2002.

Index Terms:
Wireless communications, queuing systems, contention protocols, performance analysis, communication networks, cellular communications.
Citation:
Vikrant A. Chitre, John N. Daigle, "Performance of IP-Based Services over GPRS," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 727-741, June 2003, doi:10.1109/TC.2003.1204829
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.