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JeanFrançois Hermant, Gérard Le Lann, "Fast Asynchronous Uniform Consensus in RealTime Distributed Systems," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 931944, August, 2002.  
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@article{ 10.1109/TC.2002.1024740, author = {JeanFrançois Hermant and Gérard Le Lann}, title = {Fast Asynchronous Uniform Consensus in RealTime Distributed Systems}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Computers}, volume = {51}, number = {8}, issn = {00189340}, year = {2002}, pages = {931944}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TC.2002.1024740}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
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TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Computers TI  Fast Asynchronous Uniform Consensus in RealTime Distributed Systems IS  8 SN  00189340 SP931 EP944 EPD  931944 A1  JeanFrançois Hermant, A1  Gérard Le Lann, PY  2002 KW  Asynchronous computational models KW  partially synchronous computational models KW  coverage KW  uniform consensus KW  realtime distributed faulttolerant computing KW  safety KW  liveness KW  timeliness KW  unreliable failure detectors KW  schedulability analysis. VL  51 JA  IEEE Transactions on Computers ER   
We investigate whether asynchronous computational models and asynchronous algorithms can be considered for designing realtime distributed faulttolerant systems. A priori, the lack of bounded finite delays is antagonistic with timeliness requirements. We show how to circumvent this apparent contradiction, via the principle of "late binding" of a solution to some (partially) synchronous model. This principle is shown to maximize the coverage of demonstrated safety, liveness, and timeliness properties. These general results are illustrated with the Uniform Consensus (UC) and the RealTime UC problems, assuming processor crashes and reliable communications, considering asynchronous solutions based upon Unreliable Failure Detectors. We introduce the concept of Fast Failure Detectors and we show that the problem of building Strong or Perfect Fast Failure Detectors in real systems can be stated as a distributed message scheduling problem. A generic solution to this problem is given, illustrated considering deterministic Ethernets. In passing, it is shown that, with our construction of Unreliable Failure Detectors, asynchronous algorithms that solve UC have a worstcase termination lower bound that matches the optimal synchronous lower bound, that is, (t+1)D, where t is the maximum number of processors that may crash and D is the maximum interprocess message delay. Finally, we introduce
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