This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Synchronous Bandwidth Allocation for Real-Time Communications with the Timed-Token MAC Protocol
May 2001 (vol. 50 no. 5)
pp. 414-431

Abstract—One of the key issues in tailoring the timed-token MAC protocol for real-time applications is synchronous bandwidth allocation (SBA), whose objective is to meet both the protocol and deadline constraints. The former constraint requires that the total time allocated to all nodes for transmitting synchronous messages should not exceed the target token rotation time. The latter constraint requires that the minimum time available for a node to transmit its synchronous messages before their deadlines should be no less than the maximum message transmission time. Several nonoptimal local SBA schemes and an optimal global SBA scheme have been proposed [1], [2], [3], [8], [17], [29]. Local SBA schemes use only information available locally to each node and are thus preferred to global schemes because of their lower network-management overhead. If optimal local SBA schemes, if any, can be devised, they will be superior to their global counterparts both in performance and in ease of network management. In this paper, we formally prove that there does not exist any optimal local SBA scheme. We also propose an optimal global SBA scheme which has an $O(nM)$ polynomial-time worst-case complexity, where $n$ is the number of synchronous message streams in the system and $M$ is the time complexity for solving a linear programming problem with $3n$ constraints and $n$ variables.

[1] G. Agrawal,B. Chen,, and W. Zhao,“Local synchronous capacity allocationschemes for guaranteeing message deadlines with the timed token protocol,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 186-193, June 1993.
[2] G. Agrawal,B. Chen,W. Zhao,, and S. Davari,“Guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines with the timed tokenprotocol,” Proc. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 468-475, June 1992.
[3] G. Agrawal,B. Chen,W. Zhao,, and S. Davari,“Guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines with the timed token mediumaccess control protocol,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 327-339, Mar. 1994.
[4] “Token Passing Bus Access Method,” ANSI/IEEE Standard 802. 4-1985, 1985.
[5] “Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)—Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC),” ANSI X3.139, 1987.
[6] S. Baase, Computer Algorithms: Introduction to Design and Analysis, second ed. Addison-Wesley, 1991.
[7] M.S. Bazaraa, J.J. Jarvis, and H.D. Sherali, Linear Programming and Network Flows, second edition. New York: John Wiley&Sons, 1990.
[8] B. Chen,G. Agrawal,, and W. Zhao,“Optimal synchronous capacity allocation for hard real-time communicationswith the timed token protocol,” Proc. Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 198-207, Dec. 1992.
[9] B. Chen and W. Zhao, “Properties of the Timed Token Protocol,” Technical Report 92-038, Dept. of Computer Science, Texas A&M Univ., Oct. 1992.
[10] D. Dykeman and W. Bux,“Analysis and tuning of the FDDI media access control protocol,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 997-1,010, July 1988.
[11] “Manufacturing Automation Protocol,” General Motors Corp., version 3.0, implementation release, May 1987.
[12] S.J. Golestani, “Congestion-Free Communication in High-Speed Packet Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1,802-1,812, 1991.
[13] S.J. Golestani., “A Framing Strategy for Congestion Management,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1065-1077, Sept. 1991.
[14] C.-C. Han, C.-J. Hou, and K.G. Shin, “On Slot Allocation for Time-Contrained Messages in Dual-Bus Networks,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 756-767, July 1997.
[15] R. Jain, “FDDI: Current Issues and Future Plans,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, pp. 98-105, Sept. 1993.
[16] M.J. Johnson, “Proof that Timing Requirements of the FDDI Token Ring Protocol Are Satisfied,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 620-625, June 1987.
[17] S. Kamat, N. Malcolm, and W. Zhao, “Performance Evaluation of a Bandwidth Allocation Scheme for Guaranteeing Synchronous Messages with Arbitrary Deadlines in an FDDI Network,” Proc. 14th Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 34-43, Dec. 1993.
[18] L.G. Khachian, “A Polynomial Algorithm in Linear Programming,” Soviet Math. Doklady, vol. 20, pp. 191-194, 1979.
[19] L.G. Khachian, “Polynomial Algorithms in Linear Programming,” USSR Computational Math. and Math. Physics, vol. 20, pp. 53-72, 1980.
[20] C.L. Liu and J.W. Layland, “Scheduling Algorithms for Multiprogramming in a Hard Real-Time Environment,” J. ACM, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 40-61, 1973.
[21] N. Malcolm and W. Zhao, “The Timed-Token Protocol for Real-Time Communications,” Computers, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 35-41, Jan. 1994.
[22] J. Pang and F.A. Tobagi,“Throughput analysis of a timer controlled token passing protocol underheavy load,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 694-702, July 1989.
[23] F.E. Ross, “FDDI—A Tutorial,” Computer, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 10-17, May 1986.
[24] F.E. Ross, "An Overview of FDDI: The Fiber Distributed Data Interface," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1,043-1,051, Sept. 1989.
[25] K.C. Sevcik and M.J. Johnson,“Cycle time properties of the FDDI token ring protocol,” IEEE Trans. Software Engineering, pp. 376-385, 1987.
[26] J.K. Strosnider, T. Marchok, and J.P. Lehoczky, “Advanced Real-Time Scheduling Using the IEEE 802.5 Token Ring,” Proc. Ninth Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 42-52, Dec. 1988.
[27] J.S. Turner, “New Directions in Communications (or Which Way to the Information Age),” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 8-15, Oct. 1986.
[28] A. Valenzano, P. Montuschi, and L. Ciminiera, “Some Properties of Timed Token Medium Access Protocols,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 858-869, Aug. 1990.
[29] Q. Zheng and K.G. Shin,Synchronous bandwidth allocation in FDDI networks,” Proc. ACM Multimedia ’93, pp. 31-38, Aug. 1993.

Index Terms:
Real-time communications, timed-token protocol, synchronous bandwidth allocation, FDDI.
Citation:
Ching-Chih Han, Kang G. Shin, Chao-Ju Hou, "Synchronous Bandwidth Allocation for Real-Time Communications with the Timed-Token MAC Protocol," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 414-431, May 2001, doi:10.1109/12.926157
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.