This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
WICI: An Efficient Hybrid Routing Scheme for Scalable and Hierarchical Networks
November 1996 (vol. 45 no. 11)
pp. 1272-1281

Abstract—Many recent supercomputers employ either a cluster-based design or a highly scalable network. Clustering is built-in in a hierarchical system, while highly scalable networks like mesh or torus could be easily partitioned into modules to form several clusters. This paper first specifies a self-routing connection method in a recently introduced class of hierarchical topology called de Bruijn-Cube (dBCube) network, and presents a deadlock-free routing scheme using virtual channels. A new switching method called Wormhole Intracluster Cut-through Intercluster (WICI) routing is also introduced to improve the network performance fairly close to the virtual cut-through and to maintain the buffer cost as compared to prevalent routing schemes of wormhole. Usefulness of WICI routing has been demonstrated for the hierarchical network of dBCube and large networks like mesh and torus, and simulation results for WICI routing are compared with wormhole and virtual cut-through routings.

[1] D.P. Agrawal, Advanced Computer Architecture. IEEE CS Press, 1986.
[2] C. Chen, D.P. Agrawal, and J.R. Burke, "dBCube: A New Class of Hierarchical Multiprocessor Networks with Area Efficient Layout," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1,332-1,344, Dec. 1993.
[3] W.J. Dally and C.L. Seitz, “Deadlock-Free Message Routing in Multiprocessor Interconnection Networks,” IEEE Trans. Computers, Vol. C-36, No. 5, May 1987, pp. 547-553.
[4] J.T. Draper and J. Ghosh, "A Comprehensive Analytical Model for Wormhole Routing in Multicomputer Systems," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 23, pp. 202-214, Nov. 1994.
[5] D.Z. Du and F.K. Hwang, "Generalized de Bruijn Digraphs," Networks, vol. 18, pp. 27-38, 1988.
[6] M. Imase and M. Itoh, "Design to Minimize Diameter on Building-Block Network," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 439-442, June 1981.
[7] P. Kermani and L. Kleinrock, "Virtual Cut-Through: A New Computer Communication Switching Technique," Computer Networks, vol. 3, pp. 267-286, 1979.
[8] L. Kleinrock, Queueing Systems Volume 1: Theory. John Wiley&Sons, 1975.
[9] S. Lillevik, "Touchstone Program Overview," Proc. Fifth Distributed Memory Computing Conf.,Charleston, S.C., 1990.
[10] D.H. Linder and J.C. Harden, "An Adaptive and Fault Tolerant Wormhole Routing Strategy for k-Ary n-Cubes," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 2-12, Jan. 1991.
[11] J.Y. Ngai, "A Framework for Adaptive Routing in Multicomputer Networks," PhD thesis, California Inst. of Tech nology, 1989.
[12] L.M. Ni and P.K. McKinley, "A Survey of Wormhole Routing Techniques in Direct Networks," Computer, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 62-76, Feb. 1993.
[13] H. Park and D.P. Agrawal, "An Efficient Routing Scheme for Scalable Hierarchical Networks," Proc. Fifth IEEE Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing, pp. 158-165, Dec. 1993.
[14] H. Park and D.P. Agrawal, "WICI: An Efficient Switching Scheme for Large Scalable Networks," Proc. Sixth IEEE Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing, pp. 385-392, Oct. 1994.
[15] M.R. Samatham and D.K. Pradhan, "The de Bruijn Multiprocessor Network: A Versatile Parallel Processing and Sorting Network for VLSI," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 567-581, Apr. 1989.
[16] M.L. Schlumberger, "De Bruijn Communications Networks," PhD thesis, Stanford Univ., 1974.
[17] C.L. Seitz et al., "Wormhole Chip Project Report," technical report, Dept. of Computer Science, California Inst. of Tech nology, 1985.

Index Terms:
Average message latency, channels, de Bruijn-cube, de Bruijn graph, mesh, router buffers, store-and-forward, torus, virtual cut-through, wormhole.
Hyunmin Park, Dharma P. Agrawal, "WICI: An Efficient Hybrid Routing Scheme for Scalable and Hierarchical Networks," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1272-1281, Nov. 1996, doi:10.1109/12.544483
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.