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A Reservation-Based Algorithm for Scheduling Both Periodic and Aperiodic Real-Time Tasks
December 1995 (vol. 44 no. 12)
pp. 1405-1419

Abstract—This paper considers the problem of scheduling both periodic and aperiodic tasks in real-time systems. A new, called reservation-based (RB), algorithm is proposed for ordering the execution of real-time tasks. This algorithm can guarantee all periodic-task deadlines while minimizing the probability of missing aperiodic-task deadlines. Periodic tasks are scheduled according to the rate monotonic priority algorithm (RMPA), and aperiodic tasks are scheduled by utilizing the processor time left unused by periodic tasks in each unit cycle. The length, u, of a unit cycle is defined as the greatest common divisor of all task periods, and a task is assumed to be invoked at the beginning of a unit cycle. For a set S of periodic tasks, the RB algorithm reserves a fraction RS of processor time in each unit cycle for executing aperiodic tasks without missing any periodic-task deadline. The probability of meeting aperiodic-task deadlines is proved to be a monotonic increasing function of RS. We derive the value of RS that maximizes the processor time reservable for the execution of aperiodic tasks without missing any periodic-task deadline. We also show that if the ratio of the computation time to the deadline of each aperiodic task is bounded by RS, the RB algorithm can meet the deadlines of all periodic and aperiodic tasks. Our analysis and simulation results show that the RB algorithm outperforms all other scheduling algorithms in meeting aperiodic-task deadlines.

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Index Terms:
Real-time systems, task scheduling, periodic and aperiodic tasks, deadline guarantees.
Citation:
Yi-Chieh Chang, Kang G. Shin, "A Reservation-Based Algorithm for Scheduling Both Periodic and Aperiodic Real-Time Tasks," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1405-1419, Dec. 1995, doi:10.1109/12.477246
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