This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Design and Performance Analysis of a Disk Array System
October 1995 (vol. 44 no. 10)
pp. 1236-1247

Abstract—We concentrate on the architectural issues of parallelizing I/O access in a disk array system by means of definition of a new, particularly flexible architecture, called partial dynamic declustering, which is fault-tolerant and offers higher levels of performance and reliability than the solutions normally used. A simulation analysis highlights the efficiency of the proposed solution in balancing the file system workload and demonstrates its validity in both cases of unbalanced loads and expansion of the system. Particular attention is also paid to the definition of analytical models, based on stochastic reward nets, in order to analyze the performance and reliability of the system. The response time distribution function is evaluated and a specific performance analysis with varying degrees of declustering and workload is carried out.

[1] R.H. Katz and W. Hong,“The performance of disk arrays in shared-memory database machines,” Distributed and Parallel Database, vol. 1, pp. 167-198, 1993.
[2] P.M. Chen, E.K. Lee, G.A. Gibson, R.H. Katz, and D.A. Patterson, "RAID: High-Performance Reliable Secondary Storage," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 145-185, Aug. 1994.
[3] M. Malhotra and K.S. Trivedi, “Reliability Analysis of Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks,” J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 17, pp. 146–151, 1993.
[4] G. Gibson and D. Patterson,“Designing disk arrays for high data reliability,” J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, pp. 4-27, Jan. 1993.
[5] M. Holland and G. Gibson,“Parity declustering for continuous operation in redundant disk array,” Proc. ASPLOS-V, pp. 23-35, 1992.
[6] R.R. Muntz and J.C.S. Lui,“Performance analysis of disk arrays under failure,” Proc. 16th VLBD, pp. 162-173,Brisbane, Aug. 1989.
[7] G. Gibson,Redundant Disk Arrays: Reliable, Parallel Secondary Storage.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992.
[8] M.Y. Kim, "Synchronized Disk Interleaving," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 978-988, Nov. 1986.
[9] A. Reddy and P. Banerjee, “Evaluation of Multiple-Disk I/O Systems,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 38, pp. 1,680–1,690, Dec. 1989.
[10] V. Catania,A. Puliafito,S. Riccobene,L. Vita,“An I/O subsystem supporting mass storage functions in parallel system,” Proc. Second Int’l Workshop Performability Modeling of Computer and Communication Systems,Le Mont Saint-Michel, France, June 28-30, 1993.
[11] G. Ciardo, J. Muppala, and K. Trivedi, SPNP: Stochastic Petri Net Package Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Petri Nets and Performance Models, pp. 142-151, 1989.
[12] B. Melamed and M. Yadin,“Randomization procedures in the computation of cumulative-timedistributions over discrete-state Markov process,” Operations Research, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 926-944, July-Aug. 1984.
[13] H. Hsiao and D. DeWitt,“A performance study of three high availability data replication strategies,” Distributed and Parallel Database, vol. 1, no. 1, Jan. 1993.
[14] V. Catania,M.R. Nazzarelli,L. Paolucci,A. Puliafito,S. Riccobene,, and L. Vita,“High parallel operative system: Filing and parallel I/O services,” CNR Conf. Models and Tools for Massively Parallel Architectures,Napoli, Italy, June9-11 1994.
[15] S.J. Lo Verso,M. Isman,, and Nanopoulos,“A parallel file system for the CM-5,” Proc. USENIX Summer Conf.,Berkeley, Calif.: USENIX Assoc., 1993.
[16] P. Cao,S.B. Lim,S. Venkataraman,, and J. Wilkes,“The TickerTAIP parallel RAID architecture,” Proc. 1993 Int’l Symp. Computer Architecture, IEEE, New York.
[17] E.K. Lee and R.H. Katz, "An Analytic Performance Model of Disk Arrays," Proc. 1993 SIGMETRICS Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, pp. 98-109,Santa Clara, Calif., 1993.
[18] S.W. Ng,“Improving disk performance via latency reduction,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 22-30, Jan. 1991.
[19] S.Z. Chen and D. Towsley, "The Design and Evaluation of RAID 5 and Parity Striping Disk Array Architectures," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 10, no. 1/2, pp. 41-57, Jan./Feb. 1993.
[20] A. Reddy and P. Banerjee, “Evaluation of Multiple-Disk I/O Systems,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 38, pp. 1,680–1,690, Dec. 1989.
[21] M.Y. Kim and A.N. Tantawi, "Asynchronized Disk Interleaving: Approximating Access Delays," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 801-810, July 1991.
[22] D.R. Cox,“A use of complex probabilities in the theory of stochastic processes,” Proc. Cambrige Philosophical Society, vol. 51, pp. 313-319, 1955.
[23] M. Malhotra and A.L. Reibman,“Selecting and implementing phase approximations for semi-Markovmodels,” Stochastic Models, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 473-506, 1993.
[24] M.A. Johnson,“Selecting parameters of phase distributions: Combining nonlinear programming, heuristics, and Erlang distributions,” ORSA J. Computing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 69-83, 1993.
[25] W.C. Lynch,“Do this arm move?” Performance Evaluation Review. vol. 1, pp. 3-16, Dec. 1972.
[26] R.A. Scranton,D.A. Thompson,, and D.W. Hunter,“The access time myth,” IBM Research Report RC 10197, Sept. 1983.
[27] D. Aldous and L. Shepp,“The least variable phase type distribution is Erlang,” Stochastic Models, vol. 3, pp. 467-473, 1987.
[28] J.K. Muppala., K.S. Trivedi,V. Mainkar,, and V.G. Kulkarni,“Numerical computation of response time distributions using stochasticreward nets,” Annals Operations Research, vol. 48, pp. 155-184, 1994.
[29] R.W. Wolff,Stochastic Modeling and Theory of Queues.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1989.
[30] D. Stodolsky,G. Gibson,, and M. Holland,“Parity logging overcoming the small write problem in redundant disk array,” Proc. ISCA’20 1993, pp. 64-75,San Diego, May 1993.

Index Terms:
Parallel I/O, disk array systems, declustering organization, stochastic reward nets, response time distribution.
Antonio Puliafito, Vincenzo Catania, Salvatore Riccobene, Lorenzo Vita, "Design and Performance Analysis of a Disk Array System," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1236-1247, Oct. 1995, doi:10.1109/12.467698
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.