This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Synchronizing Hypercube Networks in the Presence of Faults
October 1994 (vol. 43 no. 10)
pp. 1175-1183

Synchronizing distributed networks allows nodes to share resources efficiently, run synchronous programs and vote on redundant results in fault tolerant systems. Due to the low connectivity of hypercube networks, neither the fault tolerant hardware synchronization schemes, phased locked loops nor multistage synchronizers can be used without adding additional links. We describe a new hardware method developed to synchronize hypercube networks. Our analysis shows that the method can sustain one fault if the connectivity of the hypercube, n, is at least three, and it can tolerate up to m/spl ges/2 Byzantine faults as long as the connectivity of the hypercube, n, is greater than max{2m+1,3m-2). This scheme has been implemented in an ASIC design for a hypercube of dimension five. It will be used in the Proteus parallel computer system to synchronize the circuit switching communication network.

[1] D. Peleg and J. D. Ullman, "An optimal synchronizer for the hypercube,"Soc. Indust. and Appl. Math., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 740-747, Aug. 1989.
[2] C. L. Seitz, "The Cosmic Cube,"Commun. ACM, pp. 22-33, Jan. 1985.
[3] A. K. Somani, C. Wittenbrink, R. M. Haralick, L. G. Shapiro, J. N. Hwang, C. H. Chen, R. Johnson, and K. Cooper, "Proteus system architecture and organization," inFifth Int. Parallel Processing Symp., May 1991, pp. 287-294.
[4] D. Dolev, "The Byzantine General strikes again,"J. Algorithms, vol. 3, pp. 14-30, Mar. 1982.
[5] D. Davies and J. F. Wakerly, "Synchronization and matching in redundant systems,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-21, no. 6, pp. 752-756, June 1978.
[6] C.M. Krishna, K.G. Shin, and R.W. Butler, "Ensuring Fault Tolerance of Phase-Locked Clocks,"IEEE Trans. Computers, Vol. C- 34, No. 8, Aug. 1985, pp. 752-756.
[7] K.G. Shin and P. Ramanathan, "Clock Synchronization of a Large Multiprocessor System in the Presence of Malicious Faults,"IEEE Trans. Computers, Vol. C-36, No. 1, Jan. 1987, pp. 2-12.
[8] L. Lamport and P.M. Melliar-Smith, "Synchronizing Clocks in the Presence of Faults,"J. ACM, Vol. 32, No. 1, Jan. 1985, pp. 52-78.
[9] P. Ramanathan, D. D. Kandlur, and K. G. Shin, "Hardware-assisted software clock synchronization for homogeneous distributed systems,"IEEE Trans. Computers. vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 514-524, Apr. 1990.
[10] P. Ramanathan, K. G. Shin, and R. Butler, "Fault-tolerant clock synchronization in distributed systems,"IEEE Computer, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 33-42, Oct. 1990.
[11] M. Harrington, "New method for synchronizing distributed systems in the presence of faults," MSEE thesis, Dep. Elec. Eng., Univ. of Washington, Mar. 1991.

Index Terms:
hypercube networks; synchronisation; application specific integrated circuits; fault tolerant computing; reliability; hypercube networks synchronisation; distributed networks; synchronous programs; redundant results; fault tolerant systems; fault tolerant hardware synchronization schemes; phased locked loops; multistage synchronizers; Byzantine faults; ASIC design; Proteus parallel computer system; circuit switching communication network.
M. Harrington, A.K. Somani, "Synchronizing Hypercube Networks in the Presence of Faults," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 1175-1183, Oct. 1994, doi:10.1109/12.324543
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.