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J.E. Vuillemin, "On Circuits and Numbers," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 868879, August, 1994.  
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@article{ 10.1109/12.295849, author = {J.E. Vuillemin}, title = {On Circuits and Numbers}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Computers}, volume = {43}, number = {8}, issn = {00189340}, year = {1994}, pages = {868879}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/12.295849}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
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TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Computers TI  On Circuits and Numbers IS  8 SN  00189340 SP868 EP879 EPD  868879 A1  J.E. Vuillemin, PY  1994 KW  PROM; specification languages; combinatorial circuits; sequential circuits; digital arithmetic; logic CAD; 2adic integers; arithmetic; digital circuits; rational numbers; synchronous circuits; combinational circuits; continuous functions; synchronous decision diagrams; BDD constructs; bitserial circuits; adders; reset signals; 2Z; arithmetic synthesis f; periodic binary constants; deeply binding synchronous enable; combinational circuit semantics; arbitrary precision; programmable active memories. VL  43 JA  IEEE Transactions on Computers ER   
We establish new, yet intimate relationships between the 2adic integers /sub 2/Z from arithmetics and digital circuits, both finite and infinite, from electronics. 1) Rational numbers with an odd denominator correspond to output only synchronous circuits. 2) Bitwise 2adic mappings correspond to combinational circuits. 3) Online functions /spl forall/n/spl isin/N,x/spl isinsub 2/Z:f(x)=f(xmodd2/sup n/)mod2/sup n/), correspond to synchronous circuits. 3) Continuous functions, /sub 2/Z/spl rarrsub 2/Z, correspond to circuits with output enable. The proof is obtained by constructing synchronous decision diagrams SDDs. They generalize to sequential circuits as classical BDD constructs do for combinational circuits. From simple identities over /sub 2/Z, we derive both classical and new bitserial circuits for computing: {+,,/spl times/,1/(12x), (1+8x)}. The correctness of each circuit directly follows from the 2adic definition of the corresponding operator. All but the adders (+,) above are infinite. Yet the use of reset signals reduces all previously infinite operators to finite circuits. The present work lays out the semantic basis of a new language for describing synchronous circuits. Language 2Z incorporates arithmetic synthesis for some of the above bitserial operators, and for periodic binary constants (logic from chronograms). It also provides for the powerful deeply binding synchronous enable and reset operators, whose meaning is discussed.
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