This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Conceptual Representation of Waveforms for Temporal Reasoning
February 1994 (vol. 43 no. 2)
pp. 186-200

Addresses the problem of comparing and unifying temporal relationships between activities expressed in timing diagrams and natural language narrative (English). This problem often occurs in specifications expressing behavioral requirements and constraints. The approach followed is to translate both diagrams and text into a common knowledge representation (conceptual graphs) employing temporal relations developed for temporal interval logic. In this knowledge representation, the requirements may be integrated, checked for inconsistencies, and subjected to additional temporal reasoning. An algorithm of polynomial complexity for generating a compact representation of temporal relationships from timing diagrams is presented. Generation of comparable conceptual graphs from English statements is described by using examples. Integrating conceptual graphs from timing diagrams and sentences while checking for inconsistencies is also of polynomial complexity.

[1] J. F. Allen, "Towards a general theory of action and time,"Artificial Intell., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 124-154, July 1984.
[2] R. R. Burton, "Semantic grammar: An engineering technique for constructing natural language understanding systems,"BBN Rep. 3453, Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA, Dec. 1976.
[3] W. R. Cyre, "Acquiring temporal knowledge from schedules," inProc. Int. Conf. Conceptual Structures, Quebec City, Canada, Aug. 4-7, 1993 pp. 328-344.
[4] W. R. Cyre, "Toward synthesis from English descriptions," inProc. 26th Design Automat. Conf., Las Vegas, NV, June 1984, pp. 742-745.
[5] J. Esch and T. E. Nagle, "Representing temporal intervals using conceptual graphs," inProc. 5th Workshop on Conceptual Structures, Boston, MA, July 1990.
[6] J. J. Granacki, "Understanding digital system specifications written in natural language," Tech. Rep. CRI-87-02, Comput. Res. Inst., Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, Dec. 1986.
[7] R. Greenwood and W. R. Cyre, "Conceptual modeling of digital systems from informal descriptions," inProc. 1993 Int. Workshop on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Comput. and Telecommun. Syst., Jan. 1993.
[8] D. Matuszek, T. Finin, R. Fritzson, and C. Overton, "Endpoint relations on temporal intervals," inProc. 3rd Annu. Rocky Mountain Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, June 1988, pp. 182-188.
[9] M. Moens and M. Steedman, "Temporal ontology and temporal reference,"Computat. Linguistics, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 15-28, June 1988.
[10] Motorola, "MC68HC11A8 HCMOS single-chip microcomputer, advanced information," Doc. MC68HC11A8/D, Motorola Literature Distribution, Phoenix. AZ, 1987.
[11] B. Moulin, "A conceptual graph approach for representing temporal information in discourse," inProc. 6th Annu. Workshop on Conceptual Graphs, Binghamton, NY, July 11-13, 1991, pp. 241-257.
[12] B. Moszkowski, "A temporal logic for multi-level reasoning about hardware,"Computer Hardware Description Languages and their Applications, T. Uehara and M. Barbacci, Eds. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1983, pp. 79-90.
[13] M. L. Mugnier and M. Chein, "Polynomial algorithms for projection and matching," inProc. 7th Annu. Workshop on Conceptual Graphs, Las Cruces, NM, July 1992, pp. 49-58.
[14] S. Pallottino, "Shortest-path methods: Complexity, interrelations and new propositions,"Networks, vol. 14, pp. 257-267, 1984.
[15] L. Shubert and C. Hwang, "An episodic knowledge representation for narrative texts," Tech. Rep. 345, Comput. Sci. Dept., Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY, May 1990.
[16] R. Shank and R. Abelson,Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding. Hillsdale, NY: Earlbaum, 1977.
[17] Sowa, J.F.,Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1984. (Conceptual Graphs)
[18] J. F. Sowa and E. C. Way, "Implementing a semantic interpreter using conceptual graphs,"IBM J. Res. and Dev., vol. 30, pp. 57-69, Jan. 1986.
[19] M. Vilain and H. Kautz, "Constraint propagation algorithms for temporal reasoning," inProc. AAAI-86, 1986, pp. 377-382.
[20] P. van Beek and R. Cohen, "Exact and approximate reasoning about temporal relations,"Computational Intelligence, vol. 6, pp. 132-144, 1990.
[21] T. Winograd,Language as a Cognitive Process, Vol. I: Syntax. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1983.

Index Terms:
knowledge representation; temporal reasoning; computational complexity; formal specification; natural languages; waveforms; temporal reasoning; timing diagrams; natural language; specifications; common knowledge representation; conceptual graphs; temporal interval logic; knowledge representation; polynomial complexity; consistency checking; multiview integration; natural language analysis; semantic networks; digital systems; specification.
Citation:
W.R. Cyre, "Conceptual Representation of Waveforms for Temporal Reasoning," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 186-200, Feb. 1994, doi:10.1109/12.262123
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.