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V.F. Nicola, M.K. Nakayama, P. Heidelberger, A. Goyal, "Fast Simulation of Highly Dependable Systems with General Failure and Repair Processes," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 14401452, December, 1993.  
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@article{ 10.1109/12.260634, author = {V.F. Nicola and M.K. Nakayama and P. Heidelberger and A. Goyal}, title = {Fast Simulation of Highly Dependable Systems with General Failure and Repair Processes}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Computers}, volume = {42}, number = {12}, issn = {00189340}, year = {1993}, pages = {14401452}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/12.260634}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
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TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Computers TI  Fast Simulation of Highly Dependable Systems with General Failure and Repair Processes IS  12 SN  00189340 SP1440 EP1452 EPD  14401452 A1  V.F. Nicola, A1  M.K. Nakayama, A1  P. Heidelberger, A1  A. Goyal, PY  1993 KW  discrete event simulation; discrete time systems; probability; redundancy; reliability theory; highly dependable systems; failure and repair; dependable systems; event rescheduling; variance reductions; rare event simulations; component redundancy; reliability; discreteevent systems; highly reliable systems; importance sampling. VL  42 JA  IEEE Transactions on Computers ER   
An approach for simulating models of highly dependable systems with general failure and repair time distribution is described. The approach combines importance sampling with event rescheduling in order to obtain variance reductions in such rare event simulations. The approach is general in nature and allows a variety of features commonly arising in dependability modeling to be simulated effectively. It is shown how the technique can be applied to systems with redundant components and/or periodic maintenance. For different failure time distributions, the effect of the maintenance period on the steadystate availability is explored. The amount of component redundancy needed to achieve a certain reliability level is determined.
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