This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Managing Locality Sets: The Model and Fixed-Size Buffers
February 1993 (vol. 42 no. 2)
pp. 190-204

A memory-management model based on describing reference behavior in terms of locality-set sequences is proposed. Specialized for fixed-size buffers, this model is used to define the PSETMIN and SETMIN strategies which are proven to minimize the number of page faults in the presence and absence of prepaging, respectively. In contrast to MIN, they are also realizable for certain computations. The methodology for obtaining the locality-set sequence of a computation in advance is illustrated for relational database management systems with multiattribute-index catalogs, and the concomitant performance gains are discussed. In general, for applications that maintain their own organized collections of data, optimal locality-set management of individual computations provides an alternative to the widely used general-purpose strategies based on heuristics.

[1] L. A. Belady, "A study of replacement algorithms for a virtual-storage computer,"IBM Syst. J., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 78-101, 1966.
[2] L. A. Belady and F. P. Palermo, "On-line measurement of paging behavior by the multivalued MIN algorithm,"IBM J. Res. Develop., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 2-19, Jan. 1974.
[3] J. L. Bentley and J. H. Friedman, "Data structure for range searching,"ACM Comput. Surveys, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 397-410, Dec. 1979.
[4] P. R. Blevins and C. V. Ramamoorthy, "Aspects of a dynamically adaptive operating system,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-25, no. 7, pp. 713-725, July 1976.
[5] R.B. Bunt, J.M. Murphy, and S. Majumdar, "A measure of program locality and its application," inProc. Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Comput. Syst., Cambridge, MA, Aug. 1984, pp. 28-40.
[6] A. Choi, "Optimal memory management strategies for query processing," Ph.D. dissertation CSRL-86-5, Dep. Elec. and Comput. Eng., Univ. of California, Davis, June 1986.
[7] A. Choi and M. Ruschitzka, "Query optimization techniques for databases using multiattribute indices," inProc. 11th IMACS World Congr., Oslo, Norway, Aug. 1985, vol. 3, pp. 203-206.
[8] A. Choi and M. Ruschitzka, "On the sequencing of locality sets," inComputer Systems: Performance and Simulation, M. Ruschitzka, Ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, 1986, pp. 13-21.
[9] A. Choi and M. Ruschitzka, "Realizable optimal management of variable-size buffers," Tech. Rep. CSRL-89-2, Dep. Elec. and Comput. Eng., Univ. of California, Davis, Apr. 1989.
[10] W. W. Chu and H. Opderbeck, "The page fault frequency replacement algorithm," inProc. AFIPS Conf., vol. 41, FJCC, 1972, pp. 597-609.
[11] C. J. Date,An Introduction to Database Systems, vols. 1 and 2. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, vol. 1, 1981, vol. 2, 1983.
[12] P. J. Denning, "The working set model for program behavior,"Commun. ACM, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 323-333, May 1968.
[13] P. J. Denning, "Working sets past and present,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-6, no. 1, pp. 64-84, Jan. 1980.
[14] P. J. Denning and S. C. Schwartz, "Properties of the working-set model,"Commun. ACM, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 191-198, Mar. 1972.
[15] D. Ferrari, "Improving locality by critical working sets,"Commun. ACM, vol. 17, pp. 614-620, Nov. 1974.
[16] D.R. Fuchs and D.E. Knuth, "Optimal prepaging and font caching,"ACM Trans. Programming Languages and Syst., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 62-79, Jan. 1985.
[17] D. J. Hatfield and J. Gerald, "Program restructuring for virtual memory,"IBM Syst. J., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 168-192, 1971.
[18] J. H. Howardet al., "Scale and performance in a distributed file system,"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 6, no. 1, Feb. 1988.
[19] W. Kim, "A new way to compute the product and join of relations," inACM SIGMOD Conf. Proc., Santa Monica, CA, 1980, pp. 179- 187.
[20] D. E. Knuth, "An analysis of optimum caching,"J. Algorithms, vol. 6, pp. 181-199, 1985.
[21] A. W. Madison and A. P. Batson, "Characteristics of program localities,"Commun. ACM, vol. 19, pp. 285-294, May 1976.
[22] S. Majumdar and R.B. Bunt, "Measurement and analysis of locality phases in file referencing behavior," inProc. Performance '86 and ACM SIGMETRICS Conf., Raleigh, NC, May 1986, pp. 180-192.
[23] R. Mattson, J. Gecsei, D. R. Slutz, and I. L. Traiger, "Evaluation techniques for storage hierarchies,"IBM Syst. J., Vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 78-117, 1970.
[24] T. H. Merrett and L. Hamel, "Dynamic multipaging in even less space,"ACM SIGMOD Rec., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 56-61, Dec. 1988.
[25] T.H. Merrett and Y. Kambayashi, "Join scheduling in a paging environment using the consecutive retrieval property," inData Base File Organization, Theory and Applications of the Consecutive Retrieval Property, S. P. Ghosh, Y. Kambayashi, and W. Lipski, Eds., New York: Academic, 1983, pp. 323-347.
[26] T. H. Merrett, Y. Kambayashi, and H. Yasuura, "Scheduling of page-fetches in join operations," inProc. 7th Int. Conf. Very Large Data Bases, Cannes, France, Sept. 1981, pp. 488-498.
[27] J. Nieverglt, H. Hinterberger, and K. Sevcik, "The grid file: An adaptable, symmetric multikey file structure,"ACM TODS, Mar. 1984.
[28] J. Pearl,Heuristics: Intelligent Search Strategies for Computer Problem Solving. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1984.
[29] S. Pramanik and D. Ittner, "Use of graph-theoretic models for optimal relational database accesses to perform join,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 57-74, Mar. 1985.
[30] B. G. Prieve and R. S. Fabry, "VMIN--An optimal variable-space page replacement algorithm,"Commun. ACM, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 295-297, May 1976.
[31] M. D. Schroeder, D. K. Gifford, and R. M. Needham, "A caching file system for a programmer's workstation," inProc. 10th Symp. on Operating System Principles, Dec. 1985.
[32] A. J. Smith, "Analysis of the optimal, lookahead demand paging algorithms,"SIAM J. Comput., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 743-757, Dec. 1976.

Index Terms:
fixed-size buffers; memory-management model; reference behavior; locality-set sequences; PSETMIN; SETMIN strategies; page faults; prepaging; MIN; relational database management systems; multiattribute-index catalogs; concomitant performance gains; optimal locality-set management; heuristics; relational databases; storage management.
Citation:
A. Choi, M. Ruschitzka, "Managing Locality Sets: The Model and Fixed-Size Buffers," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 190-204, Feb. 1993, doi:10.1109/12.204792
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.