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K.N. Oikonomou, "Abstractions of FiniteState Machines and ImmediatelyDetectable Output Faults," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 325338, March, 1992.  
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@article{ 10.1109/12.127444, author = {K.N. Oikonomou}, title = {Abstractions of FiniteState Machines and ImmediatelyDetectable Output Faults}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Computers}, volume = {41}, number = {3}, issn = {00189340}, year = {1992}, pages = {325338}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/12.127444}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
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TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Computers TI  Abstractions of FiniteState Machines and ImmediatelyDetectable Output Faults IS  3 SN  00189340 SP325 EP338 EPD  325338 A1  K.N. Oikonomou, PY  1992 KW  set partitioning; finitestate machines; immediatelydetectable output faults; abstraction; nondeterministic machine; NPcomplete; polynomialtime algorithm; approximately optimal partition; computational complexity; data structures; fault tolerant computing; finite automata. VL  41 JA  IEEE Transactions on Computers ER   
A general way to make a smaller model of a large system, or to represent the fact that the observations possible on it are limited, is to apply an abstraction A to it. If the system is modeled by a finitestate machine M, the abstraction consists of three partitions, one for each of the state, input, and output sets. States, inputs, or outputs lumped together in one block by the partition are indistinguishable from each other, resulting in a nondeterministic machine M/sub A/. An observer of M/sub A/, whose task is to detect erroneous behavior in M, is prevented by the abstraction from seeing some of the faults. The authors investigate the choice of an abstraction that is optimal with respect to immediately detectable faults in the output map. It is shown that this requires solving an NPcomplete 'setpartitioning' problem. A polynomialtime algorithm for finding an approximately optimal partition of either the states or the inputs of M, together with a way to check the goodness of the approximation is given. This algorithm also solves the undetectable fault minimization problem exactly, and in polynomial time.
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