This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Synthesis of Communication Protocols: Survey and Assessment
April 1991 (vol. 40 no. 4)
pp. 468-476

Eleven methods for the synthesis of communication protocols are described. Based on particular features of the synthesis process, these methods are classified and compared. In particular, it is noted that interactive methods allow flexibility in the design process; as a result, communication patterns are not prespecified but may be constructed interactively. Methods that only consider the synchronous mode of behavior of communicating entities exclude a wide range of real-life protocols. Methods that make no reference to service requirements do not guarantee the semantic correctness of the synthesized protocol and therefore require the application of a semantic verification procedure. Most methods concentrate on the synthesis of the control part of the protocol entities, which mainly consists of the exchange of synchronization messages. The data part is not adequately treated by any of the synthesis methods. Other than the exchange of synchronization messages, some methods have been extended to deal with unreliable media by synthesizing error-recovery patterns. Some new research directions for enhancing the applicability of the synthesis approach to the design of real-life protocols are obtained.

[1] G. V. Bochmann and R. Gotzhein, "Deriving protocol specifications from service specifications," inProc. SIGCOMM'86, 1986, pp. 144-156.
[2] D. Brand and P. Zafiropulo, "Synthesis of protocols for unlimited number of processes," inProc. Trends Application: 1980 Comput. Networks Protocols, NBS, Gaithersberg, MD, 1980.
[3] T. Y. Choi, "Sequence method for protocol construction," inProc. Sixth IFIP Int. Symp. Protocol Specification, Testing, Verification, 1986, pp. 307-321.
[4] P. M. Chu and M. T. Liu, "Synthesizing protocol specifications from service specifications," inProc. IEEE Computer Networking Symp., 1988, pp. 173-182,
[5] P. M. Chu and M. T. Liu, "Protocol synthesis in a state-transition model," inProc. COMPSAC'88, 1988, pp. 505-512.
[6] R. Gotzhein and G. V. Bochmann, "Deriving protocol specifications from service specifications including parameters,"ACM TOPLAS, to be published.
[7] M. G. Gouda and Y. T. Yu, "Synthesis of communicating finite state machines with guaranteed progress,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-32, no. 7, pp. 779-788, 1984.
[8] J. Hanssonet al., "Specification for verification," inProc. 2nd Int. Conf. Formal Description Techniques, S. Vuong, Ed., Dec. 1989, pp. 347-364.
[9] "Basic Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection," IS 7498, 1983.
[10] "LOTOS, a formal description technique based on the temporal ordering of observational behavior," ISO International Standard IS 8807, Feb. 1989.
[11] Y. Kakuda and Y. Wakahara, "Component-based synthesis of protocols for unlimited number of processes," inProc. COMPSAC'87, 1988, pp. 721-730.
[12] F. Khendek, G. V. Bochmann, and C. Kant., "New results on deriving protocol specifications from service specifications," inProc. ACM SIGCOMM'89 Symp., 1989, pp. 136-145.
[13] R. Langerak, "Decomposition of functionality: A correctness-preserving LOTOS transformation," inProc. Tenth IFIP Int. Symp. Protocol Specification, Testing, Verification, June 1990, pp. 203-218.
[14] P. Merlin and G. Bochmann, "On the construction of submodule specifications and communication protocols,"ACM TOPLAS, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-25, 1983.
[15] C. V. Ramamoorthy, S. T. Dong, and Y. Usuda, "An implementation of an automated protocol synthesizer (APS) and its application to the X.21 protocol,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-11, no. 9, pp. 886-908, Sept. 1985.
[16] C. V. Ramamoorthy, Y. Yaw, R. Aggarwal, and J. Song, "Synthesis of two-party error-recoverable protocols," inProc. ACM SIGCOMM Symp., Aug. 1986, pp. 227-235.
[17] M. Sajkowski, "Protocol verification techniques: status quo and perspectives," inProc. Fourth IFIP Int Symp. Protocol Specification, Testing Verification, June 1984.
[18] K. Saleh and R. Probert, "Synthesis of error-recoverable protocol specifications from service specifications," inProc. Second Int. Conf.. Comput. Inform., Niagara Falls, May 1990, pp. 428-433.
[19] K. Saleh and R. Probert, "A service-based method for the synthesis of communications protocols,"Int. J. Mini and Microcomput. Special Issue on Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 97-103, 1990.
[20] K. Saleh, "Synthesis methods for the design and validation of communication protocols," Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Ottawa, Jan. 1991.
[21] D. P. Sidhu, "Protocol design rules," inProc. Second IFIP Int. Symp. Protocol Specification, Testing, Verification, 1982, pp. 283-300.
[22] M. C. Yuang, "Survey of protocol verification techniques based on finite state machine models," inProc. Comput. Networking Symp., 1988, pp. 164-172.
[23] P. Zafiropouloet al., "Towards analysing and synthesizing protocols,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-28, pp. 655-660, Apr. 1980.
[24] Y. X. Zhanget al., "An interactive protocol synthesis algorithm using a global state transition graph,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-14, no. 3, pp. 394-404, Mar. 1988.
[25] Y. X. Zhang, "A study on a design method for communication protocols and its support system," Ph.D. dissertation, Tohuku Univ., Sendai, Japan, 1989.

Index Terms:
communication protocols synthesis; survey; assessment; interactive methods; design process; synchronous mode of behavior; communicating entities; semantic correctness; error-recovery patterns; protocols.
R.L. Probert, K. Saleh, "Synthesis of Communication Protocols: Survey and Assessment," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 468-476, April 1991, doi:10.1109/12.88466
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.