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H. Fujiwara, "Computational Complexity of Controllability/Observability Problems for Combinational Circuits," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 762767, June, 1990.  
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@article{ 10.1109/12.53597, author = {H. Fujiwara}, title = {Computational Complexity of Controllability/Observability Problems for Combinational Circuits}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Computers}, volume = {39}, number = {6}, issn = {00189340}, year = {1990}, pages = {762767}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/12.53597}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
RefWorks Procite/RefMan/Endnote  x  
TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Computers TI  Computational Complexity of Controllability/Observability Problems for Combinational Circuits IS  6 SN  00189340 SP762 EP767 EPD  762767 A1  H. Fujiwara, PY  1990 KW  controllability; observability; combinational circuits; computational complexity; fault detection; NPcomplete; monotone circuits; kbinatebounded circuits; kbounded circuits; polynomial time; combinatorial circuits; computational complexity; controllability; fault location; observability. VL  39 JA  IEEE Transactions on Computers ER   
The computational complexity of fault detection problems and various controllability and observability problems for combinational logic circuits are analyzed. It is shown that the fault detection problem is still NPcomplete for monotone circuits limited in fanout, i.e. when the number of signal lines which can out from a signal line is limited to two. It is also shown that the observability problem for unate circuits is NPcomplete, but that the controllability problem for unate circuits can be solved in time complexity O(m), where m is the number of lines in a circuit. Two classes of circuits, called kbinatebounded circuits and kbounded circuits, are then introduced. For kbinatebounded circuits the controllability problem is solvable in polynomial time, and for kbounded circuits the fault detection problem is solvable in polynomial time, when k>or=log p(m) for some polynomial p(m). The class of kbounded circuits includes many practical circuits such as decoders, adders, onedimensional cellular arrays, and twodimensional cellular arrays.
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