This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
A Heuristically-Aided Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion in Distributed Systems
May 1989 (vol. 38 no. 5)
pp. 651-662
A heuristically-aided algorithm to achieve mutual exclusion in distributed systems is presented which has better performance characteristics than previously proposed algorithms. The algorithm makes use of state information, which is defined as the set of states of mutual exclusion processes in the system. Each site maintains information about the state of other sites and uses it to deduce a sub

[1] D. Barbara and H. Garcia-Molina, "Mutual exclusion in partitioned distributed systems," Tech. Rep. CS-001, Dep. Comput. Sci., Princeton Univ., July 1985.
[2] G. M. Baudet, "Asynchronous iterative methods for multiprocessors,"J. ACM, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 226-244, Apr. 1978.
[3] P. Bernstein and N. Goodman, "Concurrency Control in Distributed Database Systems,"ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 13, No. 2, June 1981, pp. 185-221.
[4] R. R. Boorstyn and A. Livne, "A technique for adaptive routing in networks,"IEEE Trans. Commun., pp. 474-480, Apr. 1981.
[5] O. S. F. Carvalho and G. Roucairol, "On mutual exclusion in computer networks, technical correspondence,"Commun. ACM, Feb. 1983.
[6] T. Casavant and J. G. Kuhl, "A formal model of distributed decision-making and its application to distributed load balancing," inProc. 6th Int. Conf. Distribut. Comput. Syst., May 1986, pp. 232-239.
[7] E. Chang and R. Roberts, "An improved algorithm for decentralized extrema-finding in circular configurations of processes,"Commun. ACM, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 281-283, 1979.
[8] E.G. Coffman, Jr., M. J. Elphick, and A. Shoshani, "System deadlocks,"ACM Comput. Surveys, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 67-78, June 1971.
[9] A. Dupis, G. Hebuterne, and J.-M. Pitie, "A comparasion of two mutual-exclusion algorithms for computer networks," inProc. 1st Workshop Modeling Perform. Eval. Parallel Syst., Grenoble, France, Dec. 1984.
[10] D. Eager, E. Lazowska, and J. Zahorjan, "Adaptive load sharing in homogeneous distributed systems,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-12, no. 5, pp. 662-675, May 1986.
[11] K. Efe, "Heuristic models of task assignment in distributed systems,"IEEE Computer, pp. 50-56, June 1982.
[12] P. H. Enslow, "What is a 'distributed' data processing system?,"IEEE Computer, pp. 13-21, Jan. 1978.
[13] K. P. Eswaran, J. N. Gray, R. A. Lorie, and I. L. Traiger, "The notions of consistency and predicate locks in a database system,"Commun. ACM, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 624-633, Nov. 1976.
[14] H. Garcia-Molina, "Elections in a distributed computing system,"IEEE Trans. Comput., pp. 48-59, Jan. 1982.
[15] A. Gravey and A. Dupis, "Performance evaluation of two mutual exclusion distributed protocols via Markovian modeling," inProc. 6th IFIP Workshop Protocol Specification, Testing, Verification, Montreal, P.Q., Canada, June 10-13, 1986.
[16] J. Helary, N. Plouzeau, and M. Raynal, "A distributed algorithm for mutual exclusion in an arbitrary network," Tech. Rep. 496, INRIA, Centre de Rennes, France, Mar. 1986.
[17] D. S. Hirschberg and J. B. Sinclair, "Decentralized extrema-finding in circular configurations of processors,"Commun. ACM, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 627-628, 1980.
[18] A. Kumar, M. Singhal, and M. Liu, "A model for distributed decision making: An expert system for load balancing in distributed systems," inProc. 11th Annu. Int. Comput. Software Appl. Conf., Tokyo, Japan, Oct. 7-9, 1987.
[19] L. Lamport, "Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system,"Commun. ACM, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 558-565, July 1978.
[20] L. Lamport, R. Shostak, and M. Pease, "The Byzantine Generals Problem,"ACM Trans. Programming Languages and Systems, Vol. 4, No. 3, July 1982, pp. 382-401.
[21] E. Lazowaka, J. Zahorjan, D. Cheriton, and W. Zwaenepoel, "File access performance of diskless workstations,"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 4, no. 3, Aug. 1986.
[22] G. LeLann, "Distributed systems-Towards a formal approach,"Inform. Proc. 77. North-Holland, 1977, pp. 155-160.
[23] G. LeLann, "Algorithms for distributed data sharing systems which use tickets," inProc. 3rd Berkeley Workshop Distribut. Data Management Comput. Networks, Aug. 1978, pp. 259-272.
[24] G. Le Lann,Motivations, Objectives and Characterizations of Distributed Systems(Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 105). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981, pp. 1-9.
[25] D. B. Lomet, "Process structuring synchronization, and recovery using atomic actions,"SIGPLAN Notices, vol. 12, pp. 128-137, 1977.
[26] M. Maekawa, "A√N algorithm for mutual exclusion in decentralized systems,"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 3, no. 2, May 1985.
[27] R. A. Maule and A. Kandel, "A model for an expert system for medium access control in a local area network,"Inform. Sci., vol. 37, pp. 39-83, 1985.
[28] J. M. McQuillan, I. Richer, and E. C. Rosen, "The new routing algorithm for the ARPANET,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM- 28, no. 5, pp. 711-719, May 1980.
[29] M. Pease, R. Shostak, and L. Lamport, "Reaching agreement in the presence of faults,"J. Ass. Comput. Mach., vol. 27, pp. 228-234, Apr. 1980.
[30] G. L. Peterson, "An O(n log n) unidirectional algorithm for the circular extrema problem,"ACM Trans. Programming Languages Syst., vol. 4, pp. 758-762, 1982.
[31] K. Ramamritham, J. Stankovic, and W. Zhao, "Meta-level control in distributed real-time systems," inProc. 7th Int. Conf. Distribut. Comput. Syst., W. Berlin, West Germany, Sept. 23-25, 1987.
[32] G. Ricart and A. K. Agrawala, "Performance of a distributed network mutual exclusion algorithm," Tech. Rep. TR-774, Dep. Comput. Sci., University of Maryland, College Park, MD, Mar. 1979.
[33] G. Ricart and A. K. Agrawala, "An optimal algorithm for mutual exclusion in computer networks,"Commun. ACM, vol. 24, pp. 9-17, 1981.
[34] B. Sanders, "The information structure of distributed mutual exclusion algorithms,"ACM Trans. Programming Languages Syst., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 284-299, 1987.
[35] M. Singhal, "On the application of AI in decentralized control: An illustration by mutual exclusion," inProc. 7th Int. Conf. Distribut. Comput. Syst., W. Berlin, West Germany, pp. 232-239, Sept. 21-25, 1987.
[36] I. Suzuki and T. Kasami, "A distributed mutual exclusion algorithm,"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 344-349, 1985.
[37] F. Tobagi and V. B. Hunt, "Performance analysis of analysis of a carrier sense multiple access with collision detection," inProc. Local Area Network Symp., Boston, MA, 1979.
[38] W. Zhao and K. Ramamritham, "Distributed scheduling using bidding and focussed addressing," inProc. Symp. Real-Time Syst., Dec. 1985, pp. 103-111.

Index Terms:
failure recovery methods; algorithm performance; low traffic; heuristic techniques; heuristically-aided algorithm; mutual exclusion; distributed systems; state information; token; messages; critical section invocation; random variable; site crash; communication-medium failure; simulation technique; analytic technique; heavy traffics; requests; critical section execution; distributed processing; packet switching.
M. Singhal, "A Heuristically-Aided Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion in Distributed Systems," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 651-662, May 1989, doi:10.1109/12.24268
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.