This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Self-Synchronizing Communication Protocols
May 1989 (vol. 38 no. 5)
pp. 609-625
An approach called self-synchronizing communication protocols (SSPs) is presented for handling synchronization problems in communication protocols. It is found that many synchronization errors are caused by process collision, which arises when two or more processes simultaneously transmit conflicting messages. A synchronization mechanism that allows processes to detect and resolve collisions du

[1] G. V. Bochmann, "Finite state description of communication protocols,"Comput. Networks, pp. 361-372, Oct. 1978.
[2] D. Brand and P. Zafiropulo, "On communicating finite state machines,"J. ACM, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 323-342, Apr. 1983.
[3] The International Consultative Committee for Telegraph and Telephony, Recommendation X.21 (amended), Document AP VI, no. 55-E, 1976.
[4] T. Y. Choi, "Formal techniques for the specification, verification and construction of communication protocols,"IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 46-52, Oct. 1985.
[5] C. Chow, M. Gouda, and S. Lam, "An exercise in constructing multi-phase communication protocols," inProc. ACM SIGCOMM'84, 1984, pp. 42-47.
[6] R. J. Cypser,Communications Architecture for Distributed Systems. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978.
[7] H. C. Folts, "X.21-The international interface for new synchronous data networks," inProc. ICC'75, vol. 1, June 1975, pp. 1-15-1-19.
[8] H. C. Folts, Eds.,Compilation of Data Communication Standards, ed. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
[9] M. G. Gouda and H. Y. Han, "Protocol validation by fair progress state explosion,"Comput. Networks ISDN Syst., vol. 9, pp. 353- 361, 1985.
[10] M. G. Gouda and K. S. The, "Modeling physical layer protocols using communicating finite state machines," inProc. 9th Data Commun. Symp., Sept. 1985, pp. 54-62.
[11] M. G. Gouda and Y. T. Yu, "Synthesis of communicating finite state machines with guaranteed progress,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-32, no. 7, pp. 779-788, 1984.
[12] B. Hailpern and S. Owicki, "Modular verification of computer communication protocols,"IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. COM-31, Jan. 1983.
[13] S. S. Lam and A. U. Shankar, "Protocol verification via projections,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-10, July 1984.
[14] H. Lin, "A new methodology for designing communication protocols," Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State Univ., 1983.
[15] H. Lin and M. T. Liu, "Priority driven communication protocol design," inProc. 3rd Int. Conf. Distributed Comput. Syst., Oct. 1982, pp. 371-378.
[16] H. Lin, M. T. Liu, and G. J. Graff, "Verification of a methodology for designing reliable communication protocols," inProc. 8th Data Commun. Symp., Oct. 1983, pp. 141-149.
[17] P. Merlin and G. Bochmann, "On the construction of submodule specifications and communication protocols,"ACM TOPLAS, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-25, 1983.
[18] C. V. Ramamoorthy, S. T. Dong, and Y. Usuda, "An implementation of an automated protocol synthesizer (APS) and its application to the X.21 protocol,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-11, no. 9, pp. 886-908, Sept. 1985.
[19] R. Razouk and G. Estrin, "Modeling and verification of communication protocols in SARA: The X.21 interface,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-29, pp. 1038-1052, Dec. 1980.
[20] J. Rubin and C. H. West, "An improved protocol validation technique,"Comput. Networks, vol. 6, pp. 65-73, 1982.
[21] H. E. Stovall, "A technique for predicting the performance of communications protocols," Masters Thesis, Univ. Washington, 1988.
[22] L. D. Umbaugh and M. T. Liu, "A comparison of communication protocol validation techniques," inProc. ICC'82, June 1982, pp. 4c.4.1-4c.4.7.
[23] S. T. Vuong, D. H. Hui, and D. D. Cowan, "Valira-A tool for protocol validation via reachability analysis," inProc. IFIP Workshop Protocol Specification Testing Verification, June 1986, to be published.
[24] C. H. West, "General technique for communications protocol validation,"IBM J. Res. Develop., vol. 22, pp. 393-404, Apr. 1978.
[25] C. H. West and P. Zafiropulo, "Automated validation of a communications protocol: The CCITT X.21 Recommendation,"IBM J. Res. Develop., vol. 22, pp. 60-71, Jan. 1978.
[26] P. Zafiropulo, "Protocol validation by duologue-matrix analysis,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-26, no. 8, pp. 1187-1193, Aug. 1978.
[27] P. Zafiropouloet al., "Towards analysing and synthesizing protocols,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-28, pp. 655-660, Apr. 1980.

Index Terms:
message transmission; collisions detection; collisions resolution; self-synchronizing communication protocols; SSPs; synchronization problems; synchronization errors; process collision; conflicting messages; synchronization mechanism; standardization; protocol design; operating protocols; CCITT X.21; session control protocol; IBM System Network Architecture; SNA; protocols; synchronisation.
H.P. Lin, H.E. Stovall, III, "Self-Synchronizing Communication Protocols," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 609-625, May 1989, doi:10.1109/12.24265
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.