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Issue No.03 - July-September (2012 vol.3)
pp: 366-378
D. Shastri , Dept. of Comput. & Math. Sci., Univ. of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX, USA
M. Papadakis , Dept. of Math., Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX, USA
P. Tsiamyrtzis , Dept. of Stat., Athens Univ. of Econ. & Bus., Athens, Greece
B. Bass , Dept. of Surg., Methodist Hosp., Houston, TX, USA
I. Pavlidis , Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX, USA
ABSTRACT
In this paper, we present a novel framework for quantifying physiological stress at a distance via thermal imaging. The method captures stress-induced neurophysiological responses on the perinasal area that manifest as transient perspiration. We have developed two algorithms to extract the perspiratory signals from the thermophysiological imagery. One is based on morphology and is computationally efficient, while the other is based on spatial isotropic wavelets and is flexible; both require the support of a reliable facial tracker. We validated the two algorithms against the clinical standard in a controlled lab experiment where orienting responses were invoked on n=18 subjects via auditory stimuli. Then, we used the validated algorithms to quantify stress of surgeons (n=24) as they were performing suturing drills during inanimate laparoscopic training. This is a field application where the new methodology shines. It allows nonobtrusive monitoring of individuals who are naturally challenged with a task that is localized in space and requires directional attention. Both algorithms associate high stress levels with novice surgeons, while low stress levels are associated with experienced surgeons, raising the possibility for an affective measure (stress) to assist in efficacy determination. It is a clear indication of the methodology's promise and potential.
INDEX TERMS
wavelet transforms, face recognition, feature extraction, infrared imaging, mathematical morphology, object tracking, physiological models, efficacy determination, perinasal imaging, physiological stress quantification, thermal imaging, stress-induced neurophysiological responses, transient perspiration, perspiratory signal extraction, thermophysiological imagery, image morphology, spatial isotropic wavelets, facial tracker, clinical standards, auditory stimuli, surgeon stress quantification, suturing drills, inanimate laparoscopic training, nonobtrusive monitoring, stress levels, Stress, Physiology, Imaging, Stress measurement, Face, Tracking, Transfer functions, isotropic wavelets, Physiological stress, thermal imaging, image morphology
CITATION
D. Shastri, M. Papadakis, P. Tsiamyrtzis, B. Bass, I. Pavlidis, "Perinasal Imaging of Physiological Stress and Its Affective Potential", IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, vol.3, no. 3, pp. 366-378, July-September 2012, doi:10.1109/T-AFFC.2012.13
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