This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
From Software Architecture Analysis to Service Engineering: An Empirical Study of Methodology Development for Enterprise SOA Implementation
April-June 2010 (vol. 3 no. 2)
pp. 145-160
Hong-Mei Chen, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu
Rick Kazman, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh and University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu
Opal Perry, Wells Fargo Bank, San Francisco
This paper presents an integrated service-oriented enterprise system development framework (called the BITAM-SOA Framework) as well as an instantiated design process model (called the Service Engineering Schematic) that was a result from a three-year action research case study with a Fortune 50 company in the financial services industry. The BITAM-SOA Framework and Schematic advance are both business-IT alignment and software architecture analysis techniques supporting the engineering of enterprise-wide service-oriented systems—that is, service engineering.

[1] S. Abrams et al., "Architectural Thinking and Modeling with the Architects' Workbench," IBM Systems J., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 481-500, 2006.
[2] ATAM (Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method), atamindex.cfm, 2010.
[3] A.S. Bharadwaj, "A Resource-Based Perspective on Information Technology Capability and Firm Performance: An Empirical Investigation," MIS Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 169-196, 2000.
[4] N. Bieberstei, S. Bose, L. Walker, and A. Lynch, "Impact of Service-Oriented Architecture on Enterprise Systems, Organizational Structures and Individuals," IBM Systems J., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 691-711, 2005.
[5] A.E. Brown and G.G. Grant, "Framing the Frameworks: A Review of IT Governance Research," Comm. Assoc. Information Systems, vol. 15, pp. 696-712, 2005.
[6] M. Barbacci et al., "Quality Attribute Workshops, Third Edition," CMU/SEI-2003-TR-016, Software Eng. Inst., Carnegie Mellon Univ., 2003.
[7] J.B. Barney, "Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage," J. Management, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 99-120, 1991.
[8] L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman, Software Architecture in Practice, second ed. Addison-Wesley, 2003.
[9] H.-M. Chen, "Towards Service Engineering: Service Orientation and Business-IT Alignment," Proc. IEEE Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Science, 2008.
[10] H.-M. Chen, "SOA, Enterprise Architecture, and Business-IT Alignment: An Integrated Framework," Proc. Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice, pp. 566-573, 2007.
[11] H.-M. Chen, R. Kazman, and A. Garg, "Managing Misalignments between Business and IT Architectures: A BITAM Approach," J. Science of Computer Programming, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 5-26, 2005.
[12] H.-M. Chen and S.L. Vargo, "Toward an Alternate Logic for Electronic Customer Relationship Management," Int'l J. Business Environment, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 116-132, 2008.
[13] P. Chowdhary et al., "Model Driven Development for Business Performance Management," IBM Systems J., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 587-605, 2006.
[14] P. Clements, R. Kazman, and M. Klein, Evaluating Software Architectures: Methods and Case Studies. Addison-Wesley, 2002.
[15] P.C. Clements, "Active Reviews for Intermediate Designs," CMU/SEI-2000-TN-009, Software Eng. Inst., Carnegie Mellon Univ., 2000.
[16] COBIT, the Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology, http:/ 2010.
[17] S. Cohen, "Ontology and Taxonomy of Services in a Service-Oriented Architecture," Microsoft Architect J., Journal 11, http://msdn. bb491121.aspx, May 2007.
[18] D.E. Cox and H. Kreger, "Management of the Service-Oriented-Architecture Life Cycle," IBM Systems J., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 709-726, 2005.
[19] A. Cozzi et al., "Activity Management as a Web Service," IBM Systems J., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 695-712, 2006.
[20] S. Cramm, "Alignment: The Business of IT Is Business," CIO Magazine, Oct. 2005.
[21] C. Crawford, P. Bate, L. Cherbakov, K. Holley, and C. Tsocanos, "Toward an On Demand Service-Oriented Architecture," IBM Systems J., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 81-107, 2005.
[22] R.M. Davison, M.G. Martinsons, and N. Kock, "Principles of Canonical Action Research," Information Systems J., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 65-89, Jan. 2004.
[23] L. Dobrica and E. Nimiela, "A Survey on Software Architecture Analysis Methods," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 638-653, July 2002.
[24] Department of Defense Architecture Framework, Version 1.5, pdf , 2009.
[25] A.J. Dietrich, S. Kim, and V. Sugumaran, "A Service-Oriented Architecture for Mass Customization—A Shoe Industry Case Study," IEEE Trans. Eng. Management, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 190-201, Feb. 2007.
[26] J.A. Fitzsimmons and M.J. Fitzsimmons, Service Management: Operations, Strategy, Information Technology, fourth ed. McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2003.
[27] Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework, version 1.1, , Sept. 1999.
[28] A. Garg, R. Kazman, and H.-M. Chen, "Interface Description for Enterprise Architecture," Science of Computer Programming, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 4-15, 2006.
[29] Globus Service Grid, http://www.globus.orgogsa, 2010.
[30] S.K. Grover and R. Sabherwal, "Strategic Alignment between Business and Information Technology: A Knowledge-Based View of Behaviors, Outcome, and Consequences," J. Management Information Systems, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 129-162, 2007.
[31] R. Heffner, "SOA Investment Strategies," Forrester Research, May 2006.
[32] J. Henderson and N. Venkatraman, "Strategic Alignment: Leveraging Information Technology for Transforming Organizations," IBM Systems J., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 4-16, 1993.
[33] "Business Alignment and Agility," Hewlett Packard, video, c6c9dc456458debf36b3 , 2010.
[34] "Services Science: A New Academic Discipline," IBM research report, facsum mit.pdf, 2004.
[35] "IT Alignment #1 on IT Managers List, but not Inhibiting Effectiveness," CIO Insync, Oct. 2005.
[36] Information Technology Infrastructure Library, http:/www.itil, 2010.
[37] M. Jeffery and I. Leliveld, "Best Practices in IT Portfolio Management," Sloan Management Rev., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 41-49, 2004.
[38] R. Kaplan and D. Norton, The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Vision into Action. HBS Press, 1996.
[39] R. Kaplan and D. Norton, "Having Trouble with Your Strategy? Then Map It," Harvard Business Rev., vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 167-176, 2000.
[40] R. Kaplan and D. Norton, "Measuring the Strategic Readiness of Intangible Assets," Harvard Business Rev., vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 52-63, 2004.
[41] R. Kazman, M. Barbacci, M. Klein, S. Carriere, and S. Woods, "Experience with Performing Architecture Tradeoff Analysis," Proc. 21st Int'l Conf. Software Eng., pp. 54-63, May 1999.
[42] R. Kazman, J. Asundi, and M. Klein, "Quantifying the Costs and Benefits of Architectural Decisions," Proc. 23rd Int'l Conf. Software Eng., pp. 297-306, May 2001.
[43] J.W. Kim and K.J. Lim, "An Approach to Service-Oriented Architecture Using Web Service and BPM in the Telecom-OSS Domain," Internet Research, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 100-107, 2007.
[44] M. Lankhorst et al., Enterprise Architecture at Work: Modeling, Communication, and Analysis. Springer, 1998.
[45] M. Lankhorst, "Enterprise Architecture Modeling—the Issue of Integration," Advanced Eng. Informatics, vol. 18, pp. 205-216, 2005.
[46] T. Levitt, "Production-Line Approach to Service," Harvard Business Rev., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 41-52, 1972.
[47] K. Lewin, Field Theory in Social Science: Selected Theoretical Papers. Harper and Row, 1951.
[48] J. Luftman, "Assessing Business Alignment Maturity," Comm. AIS, vol. 4, 2000.
[49] J. Machuca, M. González-Zamora, and V. Aguilar-Escobar, "Service Operations Management Research," J. Operations Management, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 585-603, 2007.
[50] J. Martin, The Great Transition—Using Seven Disciplines of Enterprise Engineering to Align People, Technology, and Strategy. AMACOM, 1995.
[51] Model Driven Architecture, http://www.omg.orgmda, 2010.
[52] P.P. Maglio, S. Srinivasan, J.T. Kreulen, and J. Spohrer, "Service Systems, Service Scientists, SSME, and Innovation," Comm. ACM, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 81-86, July 2006.
[53] L. Mathiasen, "Collaborative Practice Research," Information Technology & People, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 321-345, 2002.
[54] L.J. Menor and A.V. Roth, "New Service Development Competence in Retail Banking: Construct Development and Measurement Validation," J. Operations Management, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 825-846, 2007.
[55] National Association of State Chief Information Officers, "Enterprise Architecture Maturity Model," version 1.3, http://www. nascio-eamm.pdf, Dec. 2003.
[56] I. Ozkaya, R. Kazman, and M. Klein, "Quality-Attribute-Based Economic Valuation of Architectural Patterns," Technical Report CMU/SEI-2007-TR-003, May 2007.
[57] D.L. Parnas and D.M. Weiss, "Active Design Reviews: Principles and Practice," Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Software Eng., pp. 132-136, 1985.
[58] M.A. Peteraf, "The Cornerstones of Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based View," Strategic Management J., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 179-191, 1993.
[59] R.N. Rapoport, "Three Dilemmas in Action Research," Human Relations, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 499-513, 1970.
[60] B.H. Reich and I. Benbasat, "Factors That Influence the Social Dimension of Alignment between Business and Information Technology Objectives," MIS Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 81-114, Mar. 2000.
[61] A. Rai and V. Sambamurthy, "Editorial Notes—the Growth of Interest in Services Management: Opportunities for Information Systems Scholars," Information Systems Research, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 327-332, Dec. 2006.
[62] J. Ross, "Creating a Strategic IT Architecture Competency: Learning in Stages," MISQ Executive, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 31-43, 2003.
[63] J. Ross, P. Weill, and D. Robertson, Enterprise Architecture as Strategy. Harvard Business Press, 2006.
[64] S. Ryan, D. Harrison, and L.L. Schkade, "Information-Technology Investment Decisions: When Do Costs and Benefits in the Social Subsystem Matter?" J. Management Information Systems, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 85-127, Fall 2002.
[65] "Software as a Service (SaaS): An Enterprise Perspective," Microsoft Corp., , 2010.
[66] "SAP Solutions for Governance, Risk, and Compliance," , 2010.
[67] M.T. Schmidt, B. Hutchison, P. Lambros, and R. Phippen, "The Enterprise Service Bus: Making Service-Oriented Architecture Real," IBM Systems J., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 781-797, 2005.
[68] T.C. Shan and W.W. Hua, "Service-Oriented Solution Framework for Internet Banking," Int'l J. Web Services Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 29-48, Jan.-Mar. 2006.
[69] "A New Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Maturity Model," OMG, Docs/SOA SOA_ Maturity.pdf, 2005.
[70] J. Spohrer and D. Riecken, "Service Science," Comm. ACM, vol. 49, no. 7, July 2006.
[71] C. Stabell and O. Fjeldstad, "Configuring Value for Competitive Advantage: On Chains, Shops, and Networks," Strategic Management J., vol. 19, pp. 413-437, 1998.
[72] P. Tallon, "The Alignment Paradox," CIO Insight, Nov. 2003.
[73] P. Tallon, "A Process-Oriented Perspective on the Alignment of Information Technology and Business Strategy," J. Management Information Systems, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 227-268, 2007.
[74] D. Teece and G. Pisano, "The Dynamic Capabilities of Firms: An Introduction," Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 537-556, 1994.
[75] J.M. Tien, "Services: A System's Perspective," IEEE Systems J., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 146-157, Mar. 2008.
[76] TM Forum, "Business Consulting Network's Use of eTOM, ITIL and TAM for a Leading Chilean Mobile Operator," 32750article.html, 2010.
[77] The Open Group Architecture Framework, group.orgtogaf, 2010.
[78] J. Trienekens, J. Bouman, and M. VanDerZwan, "Specification of Service Level Agreements: Problems, Principles and Practices," Software Quality J., vol. 12, pp. 43-57, 2004.
[79] E. Trist, "Engaging with Large-Scale Systems," Experimenting with Organizational Life: The Action Research Approach, A. Clark, ed., pp. 43-75, Plenum, 1976.
[80] US Air Force Software Technology Support Center, "Guidelines for Successful Acquisition and Management of Software-Intensive Systems, Version 2.0," 1996.
[81] US Census Bureau, http:/, 2010.
[82] S.L. Vargo and R.F. Lusch, "Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing," J. Marketing, vol. 68, pp. 1-17, 2004.
[83] "Achieving Deep Customer Focus," MIT Sloan Management Rev., pp. 26-34, articles/2004/spring/45307achieving-deep-customer-focus , Spring 2004.
[84] R. Verma, J. Fitzsimmons, J. Heineke, and J. Davis, "New Issues and Opportunities in Service Design Research," J. Operations Management, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 117-120, 2002.
[85] K. Vollmer and C. Teubner, "BPMS Revenue to Reach $6.3 Billion by 2011," Forrester Research, http:/, July 2007.
[86] P. Weill, M. Sibramani, and M. Broadbent, "Building IT Infrastructure for Strategic Agility," Sloan Management Rev., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 57-65, 2002.
[87] R. Whittle and C. Myrick, Enterprise Business Architecture: The Formal Link between Strategy and Results. CRC Press, 2004.
[88] R.K. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods, third ed., vol. 5. Sage Publications, 2003.
[89] J.A. Zachman, "Framework for Information Systems Architecture," IBM Systems J., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 276-292, 1987.
[90] Zachman Framework, http:/, 2010.

Index Terms:
Management of computing and information systems, system architectures, system integration, system modeling, computer systems organization.
Hong-Mei Chen, Rick Kazman, Opal Perry, "From Software Architecture Analysis to Service Engineering: An Empirical Study of Methodology Development for Enterprise SOA Implementation," IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 145-160, April-June 2010, doi:10.1109/TSC.2010.21
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.