The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - Fourth Quarter (2012 vol.5)
pp: 349-365
N. Di Blas , Dept. of Electron. & Inf., Politec. di Milano, Milan, Italy
A. Bucciero , Dept. of Eng. for Innovation, Univ. of Salento, Lecce, Italy
L. Mainetti , Dept. of Innovation Eng., Univ. of Salento, Lecce, Italy
P. Paolini , Dept. of Electron. & Inf., Politec. di Milano, Milan, Italy
ABSTRACT
Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) are often used to support learning in formal and informal educational contexts. A technology-based educational experience consists of several elements: content, syllabus, roles, sequence of activities, assignments, assessment procedures, etc. that must be aligned with the affordances of the technologies to be used. The design process, therefore, has to follow a dual track: the design of the educational experience as a whole and the design of the MUVE. Each design process has some degree of independence, while, at the same time, the two design processes are also deeply intertwined. The paper proposes a novel approach to design (both for the educational experience and the MUVE): a “biological lifecycle” design, where evolution (for survival and fitness) is crucial, while anticipating all the requirements (creating an engineering blueprint) is very challenging. This paper is based upon a number of large-scale case studies, involving nearly 9,000 high-school students from 18 countries in Europe, Israel, and the United States. Substantial educational benefits were achieved by these learning experiences, at the center of which were MUVEs. It cannot be claimed that MUVEs were the only factors for generating these benefits, but for sure they were exceptionally important components.
INDEX TERMS
Virtual environments, Electronic leanring, Learning systems, Behavioral science,collaborative learning, Virtual environments, Electronic leanring, Learning systems, Behavioral science, domain-specific architectures, Collaborative computing
CITATION
N. Di Blas, A. Bucciero, L. Mainetti, P. Paolini, "Multi-User Virtual Environments for Learning: Experience and Technology Design", IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol.5, no. 4, pp. 349-365, Fourth Quarter 2012, doi:10.1109/TLT.2012.16
REFERENCES
[1] A. Bucciero, N. Di Blas, L. Mainetti, and P. Paolini, "How to Build Effective Educational Experiences in MUVEs: A Retrospective on 8 Years of Experience with Almost 10 Thousand Users," Multi-User Virtual Environments for the Classroom: Practical Approaches to Teaching in Virtual Worlds, G. Vincenti and J. Braman, eds., IGI Global, 2011.
[2] S. Kenderdine, "1000 Years of the Olympic Games: Treasures of Ancient Greece. Digital Reconstruction at the Home of the Gods," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. World Wide Web, pp. 67-75, May 2001.
[3] B. Johnson, "Place-Based Storytelling Tools: A New Look at Monticello," Proc. Museums and the Web, pp. 173-182, 2005.
[4] D. Schaller, K.H. Goldman, G. Spickelmier, S. Allison-Bunnell, and J. Koepfler, "Learning in the Wild: What WolfQuest Taught Developers and Game Players," Proc. Museums and the Web, 2009.
[5] E. Dieterle and J. Clarke, "Multi-User Virtual Environments for Teaching and Learning," Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking, second ed., M. Pagani, ed., Idea Group, Inc., 2009.
[6] S. Barab, M. Thomas, T. Dodge, R. Carteaux, and H. Tuzun, "Making Learning Fun: Quest Atlantis, a Game without Guns," Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 86-107, 2005.
[7] S. Barab, M. Gresalfi, and A. Arici, "Why Educators Should Care About Games," Teaching for the 21st Century, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 76-80, 2009.
[8] C. Dede, J. Clarke, D.J. Ketelhut, B. Nelson, and C. Bowman, "Students' Motivation and Learning of Science in a Multi-User Virtual Environment," Proc. Am. Educational Research Assoc., pp. 11-15, 2005.
[9] M.U. Bers, "Zora: A Graphical Multi-User Environment to Share Stories About the Self," Proc. Conf. Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (CSCL '99), 1999.
[10] AppEdTech, http://www.lesn.appstate.edu/aetaet.htm, 2012.
[11] AquaMOOSE 3D, http://www.lesn.appstate.edu/aetaet.htm, 2012.
[12] MOOSE Crossing, http://www.cc.gatech.edu/elcmoose- crossing , 2012.
[13] Revolution, http://educationarcade.org/node357, 2012.
[14] Whyville, http://www.whyville.net/smmknice, 2012.
[15] L. Rogers, "Developing Simulations in Multi-User Virtual Environments to Enhance Healthcare Education," British J. Educational Technology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 608-615, 2011.
[16] Virtual Singapura, http://virtualsingapura.comgame, 2012.
[17] C. Aldrich, Learning Online with Games, Simulations and Virtual Worlds: Strategies for Online Instruction, John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
[18] Computer Games and Instruction, S. Tobias and J.D. Fletcher, eds. Information Age, 2011.
[19] A.G. Laws, H.L. Forsyth, and M. Baskett, "MUVE, the Future of E-Learning, Building a Virtual Learning World," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Developments in eSystems Eng., pp. 307-313, Dec. 2009.
[20] M.K. Badawy, "Collaborative E-Learning: Towards Designing an Innovative Architecture for an Educational Virtual Environment," Methodologies, Tools and New Developments for E-Learning, pp. 217-240, InTech, 2012.
[21] M.D. Dickey, "Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds and Distance Learning: Two Case Studies of Active Worlds as a Medium for Distance Education," British J. Educational Technology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 439-451, 2005.
[22] S. Barab and C. Dede, "Games and Immersive Participatory Simulations for Science Education: An Emerging Type of Curricula," J. Science Education and Technology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1-3, 2007.
[23] E. Hutchins, Cognition in the Wild. MIT, 1995.
[24] D. Kolb, Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice-Hall, 1984.
[25] D. Ketelhut, J. Clarke, and B.C. Nelson, "The Development of River City, a Multi-User Virtual Environment-Based Scientific Inquiry Curriculum: Historical and Design Evolutions," Designs for Learning Environments of the Future, M.J. Jacobson and P. Reimann, eds., pp. 89-110, Springer, 2010.
[26] D. Ketelhut, B.C. Nelson, J. Clarke, and C. Dede, "A Multi-User Virtual Environment for Building Higher Order Inquiry Skills in Science," British J. Educational Technology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 56-68, 2010.
[27] S. Kennedy-Clark, M. Jacobson, and P. Reimann, "Productive Failure in Inquiry Learning in a Multi-User Virtual Environment," Proc. Ann. Conf. Australasian Soc. for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE), pp. 524-527, 2009.
[28] B.C. Nelson and D. Ketelhut, "Scientific Inquiry in Educational Multi-User Virtual Environments," Educational Psychology Rev., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 265-283, 2007.
[29] P. Sancho, J. Torrente, and B. Fernandez-Manjon, "Do Multi-User Virtual Environments Really Enhance Students' Motivation in Engineering Education?" Proc. IEEE 39th Frontiers in Education Conf., pp. 1-6, 2009.
[30] I. Perera, C. Allison, J. Ross Nicoll, T. Sturgeon, and A. Miller, "Managed Learning in 3D Multi User Virtual Environments," Int'l J. Digital Soc., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 256-264, 2010.
[31] J. Marty and T. Carron, "Observation of Collaborative Activities in a Game-Based Learning Platform," IEEE Trans. Learning Technologies, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 98-110, Jan.-Mar. 2011.
[32] M.S.Y. Jong, J. Shang, F.-L. Lee, and J.H.M. Lee, "An Evaluative Study on VISOLE—Virtual Interactive Student-Oriented Learning Environment," IEEE Trans. Learning Technologies, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 307-318, Oct.-Dec. 2010.
[33] J. Fenn, "Understanding Gartner's Hype Cycles," Gartner research document G00158921, June 2008.
[34] C. Bouras, E. Giannaka, and T. Tsiatsos, "Exploiting Virtual Environments and Web 2.0 Immersive Worlds to Support Collaborative E-Learning Communities," Proc. Novel Approaches in Web-Based Learning Technologies: Tools for Modern Teaching, pp. 20-45, 2010.
[35] T.G. Kirner, C. Kirner, A.L.S. Kawamoto, J. Cantão, A. Pinto, and R.S. Wazlawick, "Development of a Collaborative Virtual Environment for Educational Applications," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. 3D Web Technology, pp. 61-68, 2001.
[36] R.C. Portugal, L.A. Guerrero, and D.A. Fuller, "DeskTOP, a System Based on Virtual Spaces to Support and to Promote Collaborative Learning," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Collaborative Virtual Environments, pp. 199-200, 2000.
[37] M. Okada, H. Tarumi, T. Yoshimura, and K. Moriya, "Collaborative Environmental Education Using Distributed Virtual Environment Accessible from Real and Virtual Worlds," ACM SIGAPP Applied Computing Rev., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 15-21, 2001.
[38] E. Prasolova-Førland and M. Divitini, "Collaborative Virtual Environments for Supporting Learning Communities and Experience of Use," Proc. Int'l ACM SIGGROUP Conf. Supporting Group Work (GROUP '03), pp. 58-67, 2003.
[39] M. Roussos, A.E. Johnson, J. Leigh, C.A. Vasilakis, C.R. Barnes, and T.G. Moher, "NICE: Combining Constructionism, Narrative and Collaboration in a Virtual Learning Environment," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 62/63, 1997.
[40] P. Paolini and N. Di Blas, "Multi-User Virtual Environments for Education: A European Experience," Proc. World Conf. E-Learning in Corporate, Govt., Healthcare, and Higher Education, pp. 1383-1394, Oct. 2006.
[41] D. Bolchini, N. Di Blas, P. Paolini, and C. Poggi, "Biological Life Cycle: A New Interpretation for the Evolution of ICT Applications," Proc. Int'l Conf. "Educational Design Research: Local Change and Global Impact," Mar. 2010.
[42] I. Sommerville, Software Engineering. Addison-Wesley, 2010.
[43] E. Sharp, Y. Rogers, and J. Preece, "The Agile Manifesto," Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, second ed., John Wiley & Sons, http:/agilemanifesto.org, 2011.
[44] G. Randazzo, "TRAMA: A Traceability Analysis Method for (Interactive) Applications," PhD dissertation, Univ. of Lugano, Nov. 2005.
[45] N. Di Blas, F. Garzotto, and C. Poggi, "Web Engineering at the Frontiers of the Web 2.0: Design Patterns for Online 3D Multiuser Spaces," World Wide Web J., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 345-379, Dec. 2009, doi:10.1007/s11280-009-0065-5.
[46] N. Di Blas, E. Gobbo, P. Paolini, and C. Poggi, "3D Worlds for Education: Cooperation and Virtual Presence," Proc. Conf. Virtual Reality at Work in the 21st Century (VSMM '05), pp. 375-384, 2005.
[47] C. Poggi, "Edutainment: Bridging the Gap between Goals and Design," PhD dissertation, Dept. of Electronics and Information, Politecnico di Milano, 2007.
[48] D.W. Johnson, R.T. Johnson, and K. Smith, "Cooperative Learning: Increasing College Faculty Instructional Productivity," ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4, George Washington Univ., 1991.
[49] R.E. Slavin, "Research on Cooperative Learning and Achievement: What We Know, What We Need to Know," Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 43-69, 1996.
[50] L.S. Vygotsky, Mind and Society: The Development of Higher Mental Processes. Harvard Univ., 1978.
[51] M. Argyle, Cooperation: The Basis of Sociability. Routledge, 1991.
[52] D. McConnell, Implementing Computer Supported Cooperative Learning, second ed. Kogan Page, 2000.
[53] US National Commission on Library and Information Science, 2003.
[54] M. Csikszentmihalyi, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper Perennial, 1991.
[55] O. Erstad, "Assessing the Complexity of Impact - A Multilevel Approach Towards ICT in Education," Assessing the Effects of ICT in Education. Indicators, Criteria and Benchmarks for International Comparisons, F. Scheuermann and F. Pedro, eds., pp. 21-38, Publications Office of the European Union, 2009.
[56] T.C. Reeves and J.G. Hedberg, Interactive Learning Systems Evaluation, Educational Tech nology, 2003.
[57] V. Ruhe and B.D. Zumbo, Evaluation in Distance Education and E-Learning: The Unfolding Model. Guilford, 2009.
[58] N. Di Blas, P. Paolini, C. Poggi, and A. Torrebruno, "3D Worlds to Learn and Play: 6 Years of Projects with an Engaging, Pedagogically Effective, and Versatile Educational Format," Proc. World Conf. E-Learning in Corporate, Govt., Healthcare, and Higher Education, pp. 738-745, 2008.
[59] N. Di Blas and C. Poggi, "Investigating Entertainment and Learning in a Multi-User 3D Virtual Environment," Proc. Human-Computer Interaction Symp., pp. 175-188, 2008.
[60] N. Di Blas, C. Poggi, and A. Torrebruno, "Collaboration and Playful Competition in a 3D Educational Virtual World: The Learning@Europe Experience," Proc. World Conf. Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecomm., pp. 1191-1198, 2006.
[61] P. Paolini and N. Di Blas, "Multi-User Virtual Environments for Education: A European Experience," Proc. World Conf. E-Learning in Corporate, pp. 1383-1394, Oct. 2006.
[62] N. Di Blas and C. Poggi, "The PoliCultura Competition. Introducing Media Literacy in Italian Schools," Issues in Information and Media Literacy, M. Leaning, ed., Informing Science, pp. 93-121, 2009.
51 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool