This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
M. A. Chatti, Lehrund Forschungsgebiet Inf. 9, RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen, Germany
U. Schroeder, Lehrund Forschungsgebiet Inf. 9, RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen, Germany
M. Jarke, Lehrstuhl Inf. 5, RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen, Germany
Knowledge Management (KM) and Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) have attracted attention over the past two decades and are meanwhile considered as important means to increase individual and organizational performance. There is, however, a wide agreement that traditional KM and TEL models have failed to cope with the fast-paced change and critical challenges of the new knowledge era. In this paper, we propose a vision for future KM/TEL approaches which aims to fulfill the needs of the new knowledge landscape by introducing the Learning as a Network (LaaN) theory as a new learning theory characterized by the convergence of KM and TEL within a learner-centric knowledge environment. We further discuss a possible implementation of the LaaN theory based on the personal learning environment (PLE) concept.

[1] P. Drucker, "The New Society of Organizations," Harvard Business Rev., vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 95-104, Sept./Oct. 1992.
[2] P.F. Drucker, Management Challenges for the 21st Century. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999.
[3] T.H. Davenport, L. Prusak, and B. Strong, "Putting Ideas to Work," MIT Sloan Management Rev., articles/2008/15011, Mar. 2008.
[4] A. Delmonte and J. Aronson, "The Relationship between Social Interaction and Knowledge Management System Success," J. Knowledge Management Practice, vol. 5, http://www.tlainc.comarticl71.htm, Aug. 2004.
[5] Y. Malhotra, "Why Knowledge Management Systems Fail? Enablers and Constraints of Knowledge Management in Human Enterprises," Handbook Knowledge Management 1: Knowledge Matters, C. Holsapple, ed., pp. 577-599, Springer, 2004.
[6] A. McAfee, "Enterprise 2.0: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration," MIT Sloan Management Rev., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 21-28, 2006.
[7] J.S. Brown and R.P. Adler, "Minds on Fire: Open Education, the Long Tail, and Learning 2.0," EDUCAUSE Rev., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 16-32, 2008.
[8] P. Dunn and M. Iliff, "At Cross Purposes—Why E-Learning and Knowledge Management Dont Get Along," Learning Light. E-Learning and Knowledge Management, http://www.learning Light E-learning and Knowledge Management.pdf , 2005.
[9] L. Efimova and J. Swaak, "Converging Knowledge Management, Training and E-Learning: Scenarios to Make it Work," J. Universal Computer Science, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 571-578, 2003.
[10] A. Grace and T. Butler, "Learning Management Systems: A New Beginning in the Management of Learning and Knowledge," Int'l J. Knowledge and Learning, vol. 1, no. 1/2, pp. 12-24, 2005.
[11] B. Hackett, "Beyond Knowledge Management: New Ways to Work and Learn," Research Report 1262-00-RR, The Conference Board, Inc., 2000.
[12] B. Hall, "Learning Management and Knowledge Management: Is the Holy Grail of Integration Close at Hand?" white paper, , 2001.
[13] M. Lytras, A. Naeve, and A. Pouloudi, "Knowledge Management as a Reference Theory for E-Learning: A Conceptual and Technological Perspective," Int'l J. Distance Education Technologies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1-12, 2005.
[14] M. Rosenberg, Beyond E-Learning: Approaches and Technologies to Enhance Organizational Knowledge, Learning, and Performance. Pfeiffer, 2006.
[15] N. Akamavi and C. Kimble, "Knowledge Sharing and Computer Supported Collaborative Work: The Role of Organisational Culture and Trust," Proc. 10th UKAIS Conf., DocumentsAkamavi_2005.pdf, 2005.
[16] T. Davenport and L. Prusak, Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know. Harvard Business School, 1998.
[17] T. Davenport and S. Völpel, "The Rise of Knowledge Towards Attention Management," J. Knowledge Management, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 212-221, 2001.
[18] R. McDermott, "Why Information Technology Inspired but Cannot Deliver Knowledge Management," California Management Rev., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 103-117, 1999.
[19] I. Nonaka and H. Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford Univ., 1995.
[20] T. Wilson, "The Nonsense of Knowledge Management Revisited," Information Research, vol. 8, no. 1, , 2002.
[21] E. Wenger, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge Univ., 1998.
[22] I. Nonaka and N. Konno, "The Concept of 'Ba': Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation," California Management Rev., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 40-54, 1998.
[23] I. Nonaka, R. Toyama, and N. Konno, "Seci, Ba and Leadership: A Unified Model of Dynamic Knowledge Creation," Long Range Planning, vol. 33, pp. 5-34, 2000.
[24] D. Pollard, "The Future of Knowledge Management," http:/, 2003.
[25] Y. Malhotra, "Integrating Knowledge Management Technologies in Organizational Business Processes: Getting Real Time Enterprises to Deliver Real Business Performance," J. Knowledge Management, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 7-28, Apr. 2005.
[26] T. Nabeth, A.A. Angehrn, and C. Roda, "Towards Personalized, Socially Aware and Active Knowledge Management Systems," E-Business and E-Work—Challenges and Achievements in E-Business and E-Work, B. Stanford-Smith, E. Chiozza, and M. Edin, eds., vol. 2, pp. 884-891, IOS Press, 2002.
[27] P. Hildreth and C. Kimble, "The Duality of Knowledge," Information Research, vol. 8, no. 1,p. 142, http://informationr. net/ir/8-1paper142.html , Oct. 2002.
[28] C. Kimble, P. Hildreth, and P. Wright, "Communities of Practice: Going Virtual," Knowledge Management and Business Model Innovation, ch. 13, pp. 220-234, Idea Group Publishing, 2001.
[29] R. McDermott, "Knowing in Communities: 10 Critical Success Factors in Building Communities of Practice," Community Intelligence Labs, copknowing.shtml, 2001.
[30] M. Polanyi, The Tacit Dimension. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966.
[31] P. Drucker, The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines to Our Changing Soc. Harper & Row, 1969.
[32] K. Devlin, Logic and Information. Cambridge Univ., 1991.
[33] J.M. Owen, "Tacit Knowledge in Action: Basic Notions of Knowledge Sharing in Computer Supported Work Environments," Proc. European CSCW Workshop Managing Tacit Knowledge, 2001.
[34] D. Snowden, "Complex Acts of Knowing: Paradox and Descriptive Self-Awareness," J. Knowledge Management, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 100-111, 2002.
[35] G. Siemens, Knowing Knowledge,, Nov. 2006.
[36] C. Bereiter, Education and Mind in the Knowledge Age. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 2002.
[37] Y. Engeström, "Innovative Learning in Work Teams: Analyzing Cycles of Knowledge Creation in Practice," Perspectives on Activity Theory, Y. Engeström, R. Miettinen, and R. L. Punamäki, eds., pp. 377-404, Cambridge Univ., 1999.
[38] P. Baumgartner, H. Häfele, and K. Maier-Häfele, Content Management Systeme in E-Education. Auswahl, Potenziale und Einsatzmglichkeiten. StudienVerlag, 2004.
[39] A.S. Agee and C. Yang, "Top-Ten It Issues, 2009," EDUCAUSE Rev., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 44-59, July/Aug. 2009.
[40] S. Downes, "New Technology Supporting Informal Learning," J. Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 27-33, Feb. 2010.
[41] C. Jones, R. Ramanau, S. Cross, and G. Healing, "Net Generation or Digital Natives: Is There a Distinct New Generation Entering University?" Computers and Education, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 722-732, Apr. 2010.
[42] S. Downes, "E-Learning 2.0. ACM eLearn Magazine," http://www.elearnmag.orgsubpage.cfm?article=29-1§ion=articles , 2005.
[43] C. Dalsgaard, "Social Software: E-Learning Beyond Learning Management Systems," European J. Open, Distance and E-Learning (EURODL), 2006Christian_Dalsgaard.htm, July 2006.
[44] P. McAndrew, E. Scanlon, and D. Clow, "An Open Future for Higher Education," EDUCAUSE Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 1, 2010.
[45] The Amazing Web 2.0 Projects Book. Terry Freedman Ltd., 2010.
[46] C. McLoughlin and M.J.W. Lee, "Personalised and Self Regulated Learning in the Web 2.0 Era: International Exemplars of Innovative Pedagogy Using Social Software," Australasian J. Educational Technology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 28-43, 2010.
[47] S. Wilson, O. Liber, M. Johnson, P. Beauvoir, P. Sharples, and C. Milligan, "Personal Learning Environments: Challenging the Dominant Design of Educational Systems," J. E-Learning and Knowledge Soc., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 27-38, 2007.
[48] F. van Assche, E. Duval, D. Massart, D. Olmedilla, B. Simon, S. Sobernig, S. Ternier, and F. Wild, "Spinning Interoperable Applications for Teaching & Learning Using the Simple Query Interface," Educational Technology and Soc., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 51-67, 2006.
[49] J. Mott and D. Wiley, "Open for Learning: The CMS and the Open Learning Network," Education, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 4-5, 2009.
[50] Learning Design—A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training, R. Koper and C. Tattersall, eds. Springer, 2005.
[51] S.-S. Liaw, M. Hatala, and H.-M. Huang, "Investigating Acceptance Toward Mobile Learning to Assist Individual Knowledge Management: Based on Activity Theory Approach," J. Computers and Education, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 446-454, 2010.
[52] M.A. Chatti, R. Klamma, M. Jarke, and A. Naeve, "The Web 2.0 Driven SECI Model Based Learning Process," Proc. IEEE Seventh Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT '07). pp. 780-782, 2007.
[53] M. Doktor, D. Frosch-Wilke, and M.A. Chatti, "Discussion of a Web 2.0 Integrated E-Learning and Knowledge Management Concepts," Proc. IADIS Int'l Conf. E-Learning, vol. II, pp. 26-30, 2009.
[54] J. Griesbaum and S.-J. Kepp, "Facilitating Collaborative Knowledge Management and Self-Directed Learning in Higher Education with the Help of Social Software. Concept and Implementation of Collabuni—A Social Information and Communication Infrastructure," Proc. I-KNOW Int'l Conf. Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies, pp. 415-426, Sept. 2010.
[55] V. Allee, "Knowledge or Learning," Leverage, http://www. , Mar. 1999.
[56] S. Downes, "Learning Networks and Connective Knowledge," , 2006.
[57] A. Sfard, "On Two Metaphors for Learning and the Dangers of Choosing Just One," Educational Researcher, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 4-13, 1998.
[58] S. Paavola, L. Lipponen, and K. Hakkarainen, "Epistemological Foundations for CSCL: A Comparison of Three Models of Innovative Knowledge Communities," Proc. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conf., pp. 24-32, 2002.
[59] J. Husband, "Wirearchy Is Emerging," http:/, 1999.
[60] G. Siemens, "Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age," Int'l J. Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, vol. 2, no. 1, , 2005.
[61] J.H. Holland, Emergence: From Chaos to Order. Addison-Wesley, 1998.
[62] C. Argyris and D.A. Schön, Organizational Learning II: Theory, Method and Practice. Addison-Wesley, 1996.
[63] M.A. Chatti, M. Jarke, and C. Quix, "Connectivism: The Network Metaphor of Learning," Int'l J. Learning Technology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 80-99, 2010.
[64] M.A. Chatti, "The LaaN Theory," Personal Learning Environments, Networks, and Knowledge, G. Siemens, S. Downes, and R. Kop, eds., Athabasca Univ. Press, in review, 2012.
[65] G. Por, "Nurturing Systemic Wisdom through Knowledge Ecology," The Systems Thinker, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1-5, 2000.
[66] Y. Malhotra, "Information Ecology and Knowledge Management: Toward Knowledge Ecology for Hyperturbulent Organizational Environments," Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), UNESCO/Eolss, 2002.
[67] J. Lave and E. Wenger, Situated Learning. Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge Univ., 1991.
[68] Y. Engeström, R. Engeström, and T. Vähäaho, "When the Center Does Not Hold: The Importance of Knotworking," Activity Theory and Social Practice: Cultural-Historical Approaches, S. Chaiklin, M. Hedegaard, and U.J. Jensen, eds., pp. 345-374, Aarhus Univ., 1999.
[69] B. Nardi, S. Whittaker, and H. Schwarz, "Networkers and Their Activity in Intensional Network," Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 11, no. 1/2, pp. 205-242, 2002.
[70] M.A. Chatti, M. Jarke, and D. Frosch-Wilke, "The Future of E-Learning: A Shift to Knowledge Networking and Social Software," Int'l J. Knowledge and Learning, vol. 3, no. 4/5, pp. 404-420, 2007.
[71] M.A. Chatti, M. Jarke, and M. Specht, "The 3P Learning Model," J. Educational Technology and Soc., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 74-85, 2010.
[72] J.S. Brown, "Learning, Working & Playing in the Digital Age," Transcription of a Talk at the AAHE Conf. Higher Education, seely brown.html, 1999.
[73] J.H. Holland, Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity. Addison-Wesley, 1995.
[74] E. Wenger, R. McDermott, and W.M. Snyder, Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge. Harvard Business School, 2002.
[75] D. Pollard, "PKM: A Bottom-Up Approach to Knowledge Management," Knowledge Management in Practice: Connections and Context, T. Srikantaiah and M. Koenig, eds., pp. 95-114, 2008.
[76] K. Wright, "Personal Knowledge Management: Supporting Individual Knowledge Worker Performance," Knowledge Management Research and Practice, vol. 3, pp. 156-165, 2005.
[77] L. Efimova, "Understanding Personal Knowledge Management: A Weblog Case," Enschede: Telematica Institut, 2005.
[78] D. Pollard, "Confessions of a CKO: What I Should Have Done," , 2004.
[79] M. van Harmelen, "Personal Learning Environments," Personal_Learning_ Environments , 2007.
[80] G. Attwell, "The Personal Learning Environments—The Future of E-Learning?" eLearning Papers, vol. 2, no. 1,http://www. media11561.pdf, 2007.
[81] R. Lubensky, "The Present and Future of Personal Learning Environments (PLE)," rlubensky/ 2006/12present-and-future-of-personal-learning. html , Dec. 2006.
[82] M.A. Chatti, M.R. Agustiawan, M. Jarke, and M. Specht, "Toward a Personal Learning Environment Framework," Int'l J. Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 71-82, 2010.

Index Terms:
Context,Biological system modeling,Least squares approximation,Communities,Stress,Educational institutions,Knowledge management,knowledge ecology.,Technology-enhanced learning,knowledge management,lifelong learning,personalization,LaaN
M. A. Chatti, U. Schroeder, M. Jarke, "LaaN: Convergence of Knowledge Management and Technology-Enhanced Learning," IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 177-189, Second 2012, doi:10.1109/TLT.2011.33
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.