The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - Jan.-March (2012 vol.5)
pp: 74-86
M. Derntl , Dept. of Inf. Syst. & Databases, RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen, Germany
S. Neumann , Center for Teaching & Learning, Univ. of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
D. Griffiths , Inst. for Educ. Cybern., Univ. of Bolton, Bolton, UK
P. Oberhuemer , Center for Teaching & Learning, Univ. of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
ABSTRACT
IMS Learning Design (LD) is the only available interoperability specification in the area of technology enhanced learning that allows the definition and orchestration of complex activity flows and resource environments in a multirole setting. IMS LD has been available since 2003, and yet it has not been widely adopted either by practitioners or by institutions. Much current IMS LD research seems to accept the assumption that a key barrier to adoption is the specification's conceptual complexity impeding the authoring process. This paper presents an empirical study to test this assumption. Study participants were asked to transform a given textual design description into an IMS LD unit of learning using 1) paper snippets representing IMS LD elements and 2) authoring software. The results show that teachers with little or no previous IMS LD knowledge were able to solve a design task that required the use of all IMS LD elements at levels A and B. An additional finding is that the authoring software did not facilitate people in producing better solutions than those who used paper snippets. This evidence suggests that conceptual complexity does not impede effective IMS LD authoring, so the barriers to adoption appear to lie elsewhere.
INDEX TERMS
formal specification, authoring systems, computer aided instruction, IMS LD authoring, IMS learning design, interoperability specification, technology enhanced learning, specification conceptual complexity, authoring process, textual design description, paper snippets, authoring software, Conferences, Education, Complexity theory, Power generation, Materials, Usability, computer-managed instruction., E-learning standards, IMS Learning Design, authoring tools
CITATION
M. Derntl, S. Neumann, D. Griffiths, P. Oberhuemer, "The Conceptual Structure of IMS Learning Design Does Not Impede Its Use for Authoring", IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol.5, no. 1, pp. 74-86, Jan.-March 2012, doi:10.1109/TLT.2011.25
REFERENCES
[1] IMS Global, "IMS Learning Design Information Model," http://tinyurl.comimsld-im, 2003.
[2] R. Koper and B. Olivier, "Representing the Learning Design of Units of Learning," Educational Technology and Soc., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 97-111, 2004.
[3] D. Griffiths and O. Liber, "Opportunities, Achievements, and Prospects of IMS LD," Handbook of Research on Learning Design and Learning Objects: Issues, Applications and Technologies, L. Lockyer, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho, and B. Harper, eds., Information Science Reference, pp. 87-112, 2009.
[4] S. Neumann, M. Klebl, D. Griffiths, D. Hernández-Leo, L. de la Fuente Valentín, H. Hummel, F. Brouns, M. Derntl, and P. Oberhuemer, "Report of the Results of an IMS Learning Design Expert Workshop," Int'l J. Emerging Technologies in Learning, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 58-72, 2010.
[5] I. Martínez-Ortiz, J.-L. Sierra, and B. Fernández-Manjón, "Authoring and Reengineering of IMS Learning Design Units of Learning," IEEE Trans. Learning Technologies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 189-202, July-Sept. 2009.
[6] R. Van Es and R. Koper, "Testing the Pedagogical Expressiveness of IMS LD," Educational Technology and Soc., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 229-249, 2006.
[7] IMS Global, "IMS Learning Design XML Binding. Version 1.0 Final Specification," http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/ ldv1p0imsld_bindv1p0.html, 2003.
[8] D. Griffiths, P. Beauvoir, O. Liber, and M. Barrett-Baxendale, "From Reload to ReCourse: Learning from IMS Learning Design Implementations," Distance Education, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 201-222, 2009.
[9] G. Durand and S. Downes, "Toward Simple Learning Design 2.0," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Computer Science and Education (ICCSE '09). pp. 894-897, 2009.
[10] Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education, R. Koper and C. Tattersall, eds., Springer, 2005.
[11] D. Griffiths, P. Beauvoir, and P. Sharples, "Advances in Editors for IMS LD in the TENCompetence Project," Proc. IEEE Eighth Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 1045-1047, 2008.
[12] S. Neumann and P. Oberhuemer, "User Evaluation of a Graphical Modeling Tool for IMS Learning Design," Proc. Advances in Web Based Learning (ICWL '09), pp. 287-296, 2009.
[13] F. König and A. Paramythis, "Towards Improved Support for Adaptive Collaboration Scripting in IMS LD," Proc. Fifth European Conf. Technology Enhanced Learning Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, pp. 197-212, 2010.
[14] D. Griffiths and J. Blat, "The Role of Teachers in Editing and Authoring Units of Learning Using IMS Learning Design," Advanced Technology for Learning, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 243-251, 2005.
[15] W. Greller, "Managing IMS Learning Design," J. Interactive Media in Education, vol. 2005, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2005.
[16] D. Sampson, P. Karampiperis, and P. Zervas, "ASK-LDT: A Web-Based Learning Scenarios Authoring Environment Based on IMS Learning Design," Advanced Technology for Learning, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 207-215, 2005.
[17] D. Hernández-Leo, J. Asensio-Perez, and Y. Dimitriadis, "IMS Learning Design Support for the Formalization of Collaborative Learning Patterns," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 350-354, 2004.
[18] G. Paquette, M. Léonard, K. Lundgren-Cayrol, S. Mihaila, and D. Gareau, "Learning Design Based on Graphical Knowledge Modelling," Educational Technology and Soc., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 97-112, 2006.
[19] J. Dalziel, "Implementing Learning Design: The Learning Activity Management System (LAMS)," Proc. Ann. Conf. Australasian Soc. for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, pp. 593-596, 2003.
[20] Y. Miao, "CoSMoS: Facilitating Learning Designers to Author Units of Learning Using IMS LD," Proc. 13th Int'l Conf. Computers in Education (ICCE), pp. 275-282, 2005.
[21] Y. Miao, K. Hoeksema, H.U. Hoppe, and A. Harrer, "CSCL Scripts: Modelling Features and Potential Use," Proc. Conf. Computer Support for Collaborative Learning, pp. 423-432, 2005.
[22] S. Neumann and P. Oberhuemer, "Bridging the Divide in Language and Approach between Pedagogy and Programming: The case of IMS Learning Design," Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Assoc. for Learning Technology, pp. 62-72, 2008.
[23] L. de la Fuente Valentín, Y. Miao, A. Pardo, and C. Delgado Kloos, "A Supporting Architecture for Generic Service Integration in IMS Learning Design," Proc. Times of Convergences. Technologies across Learning Contexts (EC-TEL '08), pp. 467-473, 2008.
[24] S. Wilson, P. Sharples, and D. Griffiths, "Distributing Education Services to Personal and Institutional Systems Using Widgets," Proc. Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments (MUPPLE '09), pp. 47-58, 2008.
[25] G. Durand, L. Belliveau, and B. Craig, "SLD 2.0 XML Binding," http://tinyurl.comsld2-0-xml, 2010.
[26] E. Duval and K. Verbert, "On the Role of Technical Standards for Learning Technologies," IEEE Trans. Learning Technologies, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 229-234, Oct.-Dec. 2008.
16 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool