This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Jan.-March 2012 (vol. 5 no. 1)
pp. 38-51
N. Zemirline, Comput. Sci. Dept., Supelec, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Y. Bourda, Comput. Sci. Dept., Supelec, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
C. Reynaud, INRIA Saclay - Ile-de France Equipe Leo, Univ. of Paris-Sud-11, Orsay, France
Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition of adaptation strategies at a high level. We present two main contributions: a typology of elementary adaptation patterns for the adaptive navigation; and a process to generate adaptation strategies based on the use and the semiautomatic combination of patterns. We also describe how the generated adaptation strategies can be integrated into existing AHSs. A prototype has been implemented and an experiment in the e-learning domain has been conducted with a group of volunteers. This experiment shows that our pattern-based approach for defining adaptation strategies is more suitable than those based on “traditional” AH languages.

[1] P. Brusilovsky and N. Henze, "Open Corpus Adaptive Educational Hypermedia," The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization, P. Brusilovsky, A. Kobsa, and W. Neidl, eds., pp. 672-696, Springer, 2007.
[2] P. Brusilovsky, "Adaptive Navigation Support," The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization, P. Brusilovsky, A. Kobsa, and W. Neidl, eds., pp. 263-290, Springer, 2007.
[3] P. Brusilovsky, "Adaptive Hypermedia," User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, vol. 11, pp. 87-110, Mar. 2001.
[4] P. Brusilovsky, J. Eklund, and E. Schwarz, "Web-Based Education for All: A Tool for Development Adaptive Courseware," Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. 30, pp. 291-300, Apr. 1998.
[5] P. Brusilovsky and N. Henze, "Open Corpus Adaptive Educational Hypermedia," The Adaptive Web, pp. 671-696, Springer-Verlag, 2007.
[6] D. Dagger, V. Wade, and O. Conlan, "Developing Active Learning Experiences for Adaptive Personalised Elearning," Proc. Int'l Conf. Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH), pp. 55-64, 2004.
[7] P. De Bra, G.-J. Houben, and H. Wu, "AHAM: A Dexter-Based Reference Model for Adaptive Hypermedia," Proc. 10th ACM Conf. Hypertext and Hypermedia: Returning to Our Diverse Roots: Returning to Our Diverse Roots (HYPERTEXT '99), pp. 147-156, 1999.
[8] P. De Bra, D. Smits, and N. Stash, "Creating and Delivering Adaptive Courses with AHA!," Proc. First European Conf. Technology Enhanced Learning, pp. 21-33, 2006.
[9] J. Danculovic, G. Rossi, D. Schwabe, and L. Miaton, "Patterns for Personalized Web Applications," Proc. European Conf. Pattern Languages of Program (EuroPLoP), pp. 34-43, 2001.
[10] P. Dolog, M. Kravcik, A. Cristea, D. Burgos, P. De Bra, S. Ceri, V. Devedzic, G.-J. Houben, P. Libbrecht, M. Matera, E. Melis, W. Nejdl, M. Specht, C. Stewart, D. Smits, N. Stash, and C. Tattersall, "Specification, Authoring and Prototyping of Personalised Workplace Learning Solutions," Int'l J. Learning Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 286-308, 2007.
[11] O. Conlan and V. Wade, "Evaluation of Apels - An Adaptive Elearning Service Based on the Multi-Model, Metadata-Driven Approach," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, P.D. Bra and W. Nejdl, eds., pp. 291-295, 2004.
[12] A. Cristea and L. Calvi, "The Three Layers of Adaptation Granularity," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. User Modeling, pp. 4-14, 2003.
[13] A. Cristea and A. de Mooij, "LAOS: Layered WWW AHS Authoring Model with Algebraic Operators," Proc. Int'l World Wide Web Conf. (WWW), 2003.
[14] A.I. Cristea and A. de Mooij, "Adaptive Course Authoring: My Online Teacher," Proc. Int'l Conf. Telecomm., pp. 1762-1769, 2003.
[15] E.J. Brown, A.I. Cristea, C.D. Stewart, and T.J. Brailsford, "Patterns in Authoring of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia: A Taxonomy of Learning Styles," Educational Technology and Soc., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 77-90, 2005.
[16] E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, and J. Vlissides, Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Addison-Wesley, 1995.
[17] F. Garzotto, S. Retalis, A. Papasalouros, and K. Siassiakos, "Patterns for Designing Adaptive/Adaptable Educational Hypermedia," Advanced Technology for Learning, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 23-38, 2004.
[18] C. Jacquiot, Y. Bourda, F. Popineau, A. Delteil, and C. Reynaud, "GLAM: A Generic Layered Adaptation Model for Adaptive Hypermedia Systems," Proc. Int'l Conf. Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH), pp. 131-140, 2006.
[19] E. Knutov, P. De Bra, and M. Pechenizkiy, "AH 12 Years Later: A Comprehensive Survey of Adaptive Hypermedia Methods and Techniques," New Rev. of Hypermedia Multimedia, vol. 15, pp. 5-38, Apr. 2009.
[20] K. Levacher, E. Hynes, S. Lawless, A. O'Connor, and V. Wade, "A Framework for Content Preparation to Support Open-Corpus Adaptive Hypermedia," Proc. Int'l Workshop Dynamic and Adaptive Hypertext at HT, pp. 13-24, 2009.
[21] A. Moore, T.J. Brailsford, and C.D. Stewart, "Personally Tailored Teaching in WHURLE Using Conditional Transclusion," Proc. 12th ACM Conf. Hypertext and Hypermedia (HYPERTEXT '01), pp. 163-164, 2001.
[22] J. Nielsen and T.K. Landauer, "A Mathematical Model of the Finding of Usability Problems," Proc. INTERACT and CHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 206-213, 1993.
[23] L. Pesin and P. Brusilovsky, "ISIS-Tutor: An Adaptive Hypertext Learning Environment," Proc. Japan-CIS Symp. Knowledge Based Software Eng., pp. 83-87, 1994.
[24] G. Power, H.C. Davis, A.I. Cristea, C.D. Stewart, and H. Ashman, "Goal Oriented Personalisation with SCORM," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), pp. 467-471, 2005.
[25] B. Steichen, S. Lawless, A. O'Connor, and V. Wade, "Dynamic Hypertext Generation for Reusing Open Corpus Content," Proc. 20th ACM Conf. Hypertext and Hypermedia (HT '09), pp. 119-128, 2009.
[26] C. Stewart, A. Cristea, T. Brailsford, and H. Ashman, "Authoring Once, Delivering Many: Creating Reusable Adaptive Courseware," Proc. Int'l Conf. Web Based Education (WBE '05), Feb. 2005.
[27] K. Sluijs, J. Hidders, E. Leonardi, and G. Houben, "GAL: A Generic Adaptation Language for Describing Adaptive Hypermedia," Proc. First Int'l Workshop Dynamic and Adaptive Hypertext: Generic Frameworks, Approaches and Techniques, pp. 13-24, 2009.
[28] N. Stash, A. Cristea, and P. De Bra, "Adaptation Languages as Vehicles of Explicit Intelligence in Adaptive Hypermedia," Int'l J. Continuing Eng. Education and Life-Long Learning, vol. 17, nos. 4/5, pp. 319-336, 2007.
[29] Int'l Organization for Standardization, "Information Technology - Syntactic Metalanguage - Extended BNF," ISO/IEC 14977, Aug. 2001.
[30] N. Zemirline, Y. Bourda, and C. Reynaud, "A Typology of Adaptation Patterns for Expressing Adaptive Navigation in Adaptive Hypermedia," Technical Report 1541, CNRS—Univ. Paris Sud—LRI, 2011.

Index Terms:
hypermedia,pattern-based approach,adaptation strategy,adaptation pattern,adaptive hypermedia system,adaptive navigation,e-learning domain,Navigation,Adaptation model,Engines,Cognition,Unified modeling language,Adaptive systems,Visualization,adaptation strategies,hypermedia,pattern-based approach,adaptation strategy,adaptation pattern,adaptive hypermedia system,adaptive navigation,e-learning domain,Navigation,Adaptation model,Engines,Cognition,Unified modeling language,Adaptive systems,Visualization,patterns.,AHSs
Citation:
N. Zemirline, Y. Bourda, C. Reynaud, "Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns," IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 38-51, Jan.-March 2012, doi:10.1109/TLT.2011.15
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.