Empirical Evidence of Priming, Transfer, Reinforcement, and Learning in the Real and Virtual Trillium Trails
1. the image quality was often low;
2. the environment was dependent on a designer's interpretation;
3. the navigation, controlled by the designer, restricted freedom of movement.
1. a data-based simulation of terrain and plant population species;
2. composed of graphics that are high-fidelity, photorealistic approximations of the real location, ecology, and plants;
3. based on a real informal educational curriculum;
4. based on real informal learning activity and interaction.
7.4.1 Results on Attitudes Attitudes ranked as equal represent an exciting accomplishment in interface design and virtual environment design for intrinsic learning environments, as the Virtual matches the Real. Attitudes ranked the same were: Awe and Wonder, Sense of Calm, Assessment of Beauty, Disinterest, Sense of Excitement, Level of Curiosity, and Desire to Share. Furthermore, the attitude of Desire to Share was statistically identical, , , thus suggesting that programs like the VTT may prove effective for teaching collaboration and team-building:
7.4.2 Real Ranked Higher than Virtual Presence ranked higher, , , for the Real ( , ) when compared to the Virtual ( , ). Inquiry ranked higher, , , in the Real ( , ) when compared to the Virtual ( , ). Learning ranked higher, , , for the Real ( ) when compared to the Virtual ( , ):
7.4.3 Virtual Results on Attitudes Trending Higher than the Real The Virtual trended higher in Level of Frustration and suggested a higher trend for Desire to Create, a need to Reexperience, and the ranking of Exploration. The students ranked Level of Frustration, , , higher for the Virtual ( , ) when compared to the Real ( , ). The Desire to Create trended higher for the Virtual ( , ) when compared to the Real ( , ). A need to reexperience ranked higher for the Virtual ( , ) when compared to the Real ( , ). As expected, Exploration ranked higher for the Virtual ( , ) when compared to the Real ( , ):
The author is with the Department of Computer Science, Slippery Rock University, Slippery Rock, PA 16057. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Manuscript received 2 Dec. 2009; revised 8 June 2010; accepted 14 July 2010; published online 28 July 2010.
For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to: email@example.com, and reference IEEECS Log Number TLTSI-2009-12-0176.
Digital Object Identifier no. 10.1109/TLT.2010.20.
Maria C.R. Harrington received the BS degree in economics with a minor in art from Carnegie Mellon University and the PhD degree in information science from the School of Information Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh in 2008. She is now an assistant professor in the Department of Computing Science at Slippery Rock University, Pennsylvania, and the CEO of Virtual Field Trips, LLC. She has been an adjunct professor and visiting lecturer of human-computer interaction, new media art and design, and computer science. She served on the ACM SIGGRAPH Education Program Committee. She is a member of the IEEE.