1. natural environment,
6. production systems,
7. natural hazards, and
8. environmental problems.
1. How did you feel while playing this round of gaming? (Decompressing - feelings.)
2. What happened in this round? (Describing - facts.)
3. How do you compare the happenings in this round to the real world? (Drawing comparison - enhancing transfer.)
4. What will you do differently in the coming round? (Deriving lessons - application.)
1. two teachers (preferably one senior secondary geography teacher, and one computer teacher) to implement VISOLE and coordinate the competition-related activities and
2. 16 secondary-4 students to participate in the competition.
1. 25 multiple-choice questions for assessing the students' prior knowledge corresponding to the eight subject areas covered in Farmtasia;
2. 15 true or false questions for assessing their prior knowledge in the application of the eight subject areas in a multidisciplinary manner; and
3. two open-ended short questions for assessing their prior knowledge in the application of the eight subject areas in a multidisciplinary manner.
1. A student knowledge posttest, which was at the same level of difficulty 8 as the knowledge pretest, was administered. The students were allowed to use 35 minutes to complete the test.
2. A student self-evaluated generic-skill enhancement questionnaire, which was designed by Bennett et al. [ 32], was administered. This questionnaire contained 35 question items which fell into four dimensions ( self, information, others, and task) of generic skills for problem solving. The students were given 20 minutes to self-evaluate the extent of the enhancement of their generic skills for problems solving after the VISOLE process. A five-point Likert scale (5: Very Great; 4: Great; 3: Moderate; 2: Little; 1: No) was adopted in the questionnaire. Appendix A shows the question items with respect to the four dimensions.
3. A number of student and teacher interviews 9 were conducted for gaining more understanding of their learning and facilitation process in VISOLE respectively. Each interview took around 30 minutes to complete.
1. students' prior gaming experiences,
2. students' interest in gaming,
3. students' conception of learning,
4. technical efficacy of the game system,
5. teachers' time sufficiency for facilitating the VISOLE process, and
6. teachers' prior gaming experiences.
1. inviting gamer students as game tutors,
2. using an alternative strategy to select case study scenarios for conducting debriefing lessons,
3. triangulating students' learning progress with other evidence,
4. timely encouragement and counseling,
5. fostering students' off-the-game collaborative sharing, and
6. relating students' participation in VISOLE to their academic performance.
M.S.Y. Jong is with the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong.
J. Shang is with the Department of Educational Technology, Graduate School, Peking University, Beijing, China.
F.-l. Lee is with the Centre for the Advancement of IT in Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong.
J.H.M. Lee is with the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong.
Manuscript received 7 Dec. 2009; revised 10 May 2010; accepted 12 Oct. 2010; published online 2 Nov. 2010.
For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org, and reference IEEECS Log Number TLTSI-2009-12-0188.
Digital Object Identifier no. 10.1109/TLT.2010.34.
1. HKCEE is an important public examination in Hong Kong secondary education, equivalent to O-level examination in the United Kingdom.
2. Among 16 schools, 10 of them had two teachers, one school had three teachers, and five schools had only one teacher to participate in the study.
3. One of the schools had only 14 students participating in the competition.
4. The scaffolding videos were produced purposefully for this evaluative study. The teacher who presented the scaffolding materials in the videos is one of the instructional designers of Farmtasia (a former member in our research group).
5. The debriefing-lesson videos were recorded during a pilot run of VISOLE in a secondary school carried out in April 2006. The teacher who conducted the debriefing lessons in the videos is one of the instructional designers of Farmtasia (a former member in our research group).
6. It aimed at fitting the lessons into the existing lesson time slots in the schools.
7. It included 1) distributing the game manual to the students, 2) briefing them on downloading and installing the JAVA runtime, as well as operating the Farmtasia game, and 3) letting them try a practising round of the game.
8. The format and number of questions of the knowledge posttest were same as the knowledge pretest. The questions appearing in the posttest were rephrased (or reworded) and reordered from those in the pretest.
9. The students were interviewed in groups, while the teachers were interviewed individually. All interviews were audio-recorded, and later transcribed into text for qualitative analysis.
10. Notwithstanding the fact that the category construction of the factors was grounded upon the qualitative data with a “bottom-up” approach, the qualitative data per se had yet to be rich enough to give thick description [ 35] of the “inner workings” of the students' learning process in VISOLE.
Morris S.Y. Jong received the BEng (Hons) degree from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, the MSc degree from The University of Hong Kong, and the PhD degree from The Chinese University of Hong Kong, respectively. He is currently the associate director at the Centre for the Advancement of Information Technology in Education, and an assistant professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. His research focuses on digital-game-based learning, computer-supported collaborative learning, and teacher professional development. He has published more than 50 refereed journal papers, book chapters, and conference papers concerning digital-game-based learning, teachers' IT competency, and technology-enhanced learning environments. Currently, he is on the editorial boards of a number of academic journals in the domains of digital-game-based learning, virtual reality in education, and teacher education.
Junjie Shang received the BSc and MPhil degrees from Peking University in 1996 and 1999, respectively, and the PhD degree from The Chinese University of Hong Kong in 2007. He is currently the director in the Department of Educational Technology as well as the vice dean of the Graduate School of Education, Peking University. His research focuses on computer-game-based learning and virtual reality in education. He has published more than 35 papers in international and global Chinese journals and conferences.
Fong-lok Lee is the codirector at the Centre for the Advancement of Information Technology in Education under the Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. He has 15 years of working experience in the specialized field, 22 years of teaching experience in local secondary schools, and more than 11 years in conducting teacher training courses for local secondary school teachers. He served as a secondary school teacher, extracurricular activities master, and mathematics panel chairman. Presently, he is a member of the executive committee of the Global Chinese Association on Computers in Education, the co-chief-editor of the Global Chinese Journal of Computers in Education, the past president of the Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, and the chair of the HK & Macau Chapter, Global Chinese Society on Computers in Education. His research interests include educational technology cognitive processes, artificial intelligence, mathematics learning, and the application of information technologies in education.
Jimmy H.M. Lee received the BMath (Hons) and MMath degrees from the University of Waterloo in 1987 and 1988, respectively, and the PhD degree from the University of Victoria in 1992. Immediately upon graduation, he joined the Chinese University of Hong Kong. His research focuses on the theory and practice of constraint satisfaction and optimization with applications in scheduling, resource allocation, and combinatorial problems. In recent years, he has also been conducting research on novel-web-based learning platforms and the accompanying pedagogies, particularly in the development of educational games. He is currently the codirector (Research and Development) of the Centre for the Advancement of Information Technology in Education under the Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. He has more than 100 refereed technical publications in international journals and conferences, and has obtained more than $11 million in competitive research funding. He is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Discrete Algorithms, the CONTRAINTS journal, and the Constraint Programming Newsletter. He is active in extramural educational activities. He has taught for the Programs for the Gifted and Talented, and was the chief examiner of Paper II of the HK A-Level Computer Studies subject from 1995 to 2001. Inspired by his many former good teachers from elementary school to universities, his passion for teaching garnered him the Vice-Chancellor's Exemplary Teaching Award in 2005 and the Faculty of Engineering Exemplary Teaching Award in 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2003.