The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.03 - July-September (2010 vol.3)
pp: 250-264
Neil Y. Yen , Waseda University, Japan
Timothy K. Shih , Asia University, Taiwan
Louis R. Chao , Tamkang University, Taiwan
Qun Jin , Waseda University, Japan
ABSTRACT
In line with the popularity of the Internet and the development of search engine, users request information through web-based services. Although general-purpose searching such as one provided by Google is powerful, searching mechanism for specific purposes could rely on metadata. In distance learning (or e-learning), SCORM provides an efficient metadata definition for learning objects to be searched and shared. To facilitate searching in a federated repository, CORDRA provides a common architecture for discovering and sharing Learning Objects. We followed SCORM and CORDRA specifications to develop a registry system, called the MINE Registry, for storing and sharing 20,738 Learning Objects created in the past five years. As a contribution, we propose the concept of “Reusability Tree” to represent the relationships among relevant Learning Objects and enhance CORDRA. We further collect relevant information, while users are utilizing Learning Objects, such as citations and time period persisted. The feedbacks from the user community are also considered as critical elements for evaluating significance degree of Learning Objects. Through theses factors, we propose a mechanism to weight and rank Learning Objects in the MINE Registry, in addition to other external learning objects repositories. As a practical contribution, we provide a tool called “Search Guider” to assist users in finding relevant information in Learning Objects based on individual requirements.
INDEX TERMS
CORDRA, LOM, learning object repository, ranking metrics, search guidance, reusability tree, social feedback, information retrieval, distance learning.
CITATION
Neil Y. Yen, Timothy K. Shih, Louis R. Chao, Qun Jin, "Ranking Metrics and Search Guidance for Learning Object Repository", IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol.3, no. 3, pp. 250-264, July-September 2010, doi:10.1109/TLT.2010.15
REFERENCES
[1] ADL Technical Team, Authoring Tools Application Guidelines-Practical Examples and SCORM Implementation Suggestions Version 1.0, Aug. 2003.
[2] ADL Technical Team, Content Object Repository Discovery and Registration/Resolution Architecture, ADL First Int'l Plugfest, June 2004.
[3] ADL Technical Team, Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) 2004 Documentation First Edition, Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL), 2004.
[4] A. Aizawa, "An Information-Theoretic Perspective of TF-IDF Measures," Information Processing and Management, vol. 39, pp. 45-65, 2003.
[5] K. Bennett and C. Campbell, "Support Vector Machines: Hype of Hallelujah," ACM SIGKDD Explorations, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1-13, 2000.
[6] O. Catteau, P. Vidal, and J. Broisin, "Learning Object Virtualization Allowing for Learning Object Assessments and Suggestions for Use," Proc. Eighth IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 579-583, 2008.
[7] J.H. Chang and W.S. Lee, "Finding Recent Frequent Itemsets Adaptively over Online Data Streams," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp. 487-492, 2003.
[8] S. Chaudhuri, L. Gravano, and A. Marian, "Optimizing Top-K Selection Queries over Multimedia Repositories," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 992-1009, Aug. 2004.
[9] Y. Chen, G. Dong, J. Han, B.W. Wah, and J. Wang, "Multidimensional Regression Analysis of Time-Series Data Streams," Proc. Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 323-324, 2002.
[10] Y.H. Chen, C.C. Wang, L.Y. Deng, M.C. Chen, and T.K. Shih, "Enhancing Reusability of Learning Objects with Object-Oriented Inheritance Relationships," Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing Workshops, p. 26, 2007.
[11] S. Cost and S. Salzberg, "A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features," Machine Learning, vol. 10, pp. 57-78, 1993.
[12] eFactory, "A Survey of Google's PageRank," http://pr.efactory. dee-pagerank-algorithm.shtml , Jan. 2009.
[13] R.A. Farmer and B. Hughes, "Pattern-Based End-User Development with Learning Objects," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 794-798, 2006.
[14] E. Garcia, "Cosine Similarity and Term Weight Tutorial," http://www.miislita.com/information-retrieval-tutorial cosine-similarity-tutorial.html , 2010.
[15] D. Gaševic, J. Jovanovic, and V. Devedžic, "Ontology-Based Annotation of Learning Object Content," Interactive Learning Environments, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-26, 2007.
[16] L. Golab and M.T. Ozsu, "Issues in Data Stream Management," ACM SIGMOD Record, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 5-14, 2003.
[17] M.H. Sarip and Y. Yahya, "LORIuMET: Learning Object Repositories Interoperability Using Metadata," Proc. Int'l Symp. Information Technology, pp. 1-5, 2008.
[18] S. Hasegawa, A. Kashihara, and J. Toyoca, "An e-Learning Library on the Web," Proc. Int'l Conf. Computers in Education, pp. 1281-1282, 2002.
[19] J.R. Hilera, S. Oton, A. Ortiz, L. De Marcos, J.J. Martinez, J.A. Gutierrez, J.M. Gutierrez, and R. Barchino, "Evaluating Simple Query Interface Compliance in Public Repositories," Proc. Ninth IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 306-310, 2009.
[20] IEEE Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata, IEEE P1484.12.1/d6.4, 2002.
[21] K. Järvelin and J. Kekäläinen, "IR Evaluation Methods for Retrieving Highly Relevant Documents," Proc. 23rd ACM Int'l Conf. Information Retrieval, 2000.
[22] M. Kastner and G. Furtmüller, "Operationalization of the Metadata Element "Difficulty," Proc. Seventh IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 608-612, 2007.
[23] A. Khierbek, S. Salloum, and A. Tannous, "An Inference Network Model for Retrieving Reusable Learning Objects," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Information and Comm. Technologies, pp. 1-5, 2008.
[24] A.N. Langville and C.D. Meyer, Google's PageRank and Beyond: The Science of Search Engine Rankings. Princeton Univ. Press, 2006.
[25] F.H. Lin, T.K. Shih, and W. Kim, "An Implementation of the CORDRA Architecture Enhanced for Systematic Reuse of Learning Objects," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 925-938, June 2009.
[26] H.W. Lin, M.T. Tzou, T.K. Shih, C.C. Wang, and L.C. Lin, "Metadata Wizard Design for Searchable and Reusable Repository," Proc. Int'l Conf. Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), 2006.
[27] Q. Lin, D. Agrawal, and A. El Abbadi, "Supporting Sliding Window Queries for Continuous Data Streams," Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Scientific and Statistical Database Management, pp. 85-94, 2003.
[28] X. Ochoa and E. Duval, "Use of Contextualized Attention Metadata for Ranking and Recommending Learning Objects," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Information and Knowledge Management, pp. 9-16, 2006.
[29] X. Ochoa and E. Duval, "Relevance Ranking Metrics for Learning Object," IEEE Trans. Learning Technologies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 34-48, Jan. 2008.
[30] C.S. Perng, H. Wang, S.R. Zhang, and D.S. Parker, "Landmarks: A New Model for Similarity-Based Pattern Querying in Time Series," Proc. 16th Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 33-42, 2000.
[31] J. Rocchio, "Relevance Feedback Information Retrieval," The Smart Retrieval System—Experiments in Automatic Document Processing, G. Salton, ed., pp. 313-323, Prentice-Hall, 1971.
[32] M. Roya, R. Chang, and X. Qi, "Learning from Relevance Feedback Sessions Using a K-Nearest-Neighbor-Based Semantic Repository," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia and Expo, pp. 1994-1997, 2007.
[33] A.E. Saddik, S. Fischer, and R. Steinmetz, "Reusable Multimedia Content in Web-Based Learning Systems," IEEE Multimedia, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 30-38, July 2001.
[34] S.S. Alonso, "Enhancing Availability of Learning Resources on Organic Agriculture and Agroecology," The Electronic Library, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 792-813, 2009.
[35] T.K. Shih, C.C. Chang, and H.W. Lin, "Reusability on Learning Object Repository," Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Web-Based Learning, pp. 203-214, 2006.
[36] T.K. Shih, F.H. Lin, Y.L. Du, L.R. Chao, and W. Kim, "Extending CORDRA for Systematic Reuse," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Web-Based Learning, pp. 184-195, 2007.
[37] T.K. Shih, T.H. Wang, C.Y. Chang, T.C. Kao, and D. Hamilton, "Ubiquitous e-Learning with Multimodal Multimedia Devices," IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 487-499, 2007.
[38] W.C. Shih, C.T. Yang, P.I. Chen, and S.S. Tseng, "Performance-Based Content Retrieval for Learning Object Repositories on Grid Environments," Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies, pp. 515-520, 2006.
[39] M.A. Sicilia and E. García-Barriocanal, "On the Concepts of Usability and Reusability of Learning Objects," Int'l Rev. of Research in Open and Distance Learning, vol. 4, no. 2, 2003.
[40] S. Ternier, D. Massart, A. Campi, S. Guinea, S. Ceri, and E. Duval, "Interoperability for Searching Learning Object Repositories," D-Lib Magazine, vol. 14, nos. 1/2, 2008.
[41] S. Ternier, K. Verbert, B. Vandeputte, J. Klerkx, E. Duval, V. Ordoez, and X. Ochoa, "The Ariadne Infrastructure for Managing and Storing Metadata," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 18-25, July 2009.
[42] The Official Google Blog "OpenSocial Makes the Web Better," http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2007/11opensocial-makes-web-better.html , Dec. 2008.
[43] K.H. Tsai, T.K. Chiu, M.C. Lee, and T.I. Wang, "A Learning Objects Recommendation Model Based on the Preference and Ontological Approaches," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 36-40, 2006.
[44] F. Van Assche, L.M. Campbell, L.A. Rifón, and M. Willem, "Semantic Interoperability: Use of Vocabularies with Learning Object Metadata," Proc. Third IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT '03), pp. 511-514, 2003.
[45] N. Vassiliadis, F. Kokoras, I. Vlahavas, and D. Sampson, "An Intelligent Educational Metadata Repository," Intelligent Systems: Technology and Applications, C. Leondes, ed., CRC Press, 2003.
[46] V. Vinay, I.J. Cox, N. Milic-Frayling, and K. Wood, "Evaluating Relevance Feedback Algorithms for Searching on Small Displays," Proc. 27th European Conf. IR Research, pp. 185-199, 2005.
[47] P. Vitharana, F.M. Zahedi, and H. Jain, "Knowledge-Based Repository Scheme for Storing and Retrieving Business Components: A Theoretical Design and an Empirical Analysis," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 649-664, July 2003.
[48] H.C. Wu, R.W.P. Luk, K.F. Wong, and K.L. Kwok, "Interpreting TF-IDF Term Weights as Making Relevance Decisions," ACM Trans. Information Systems, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 13-49, 2008.
22 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool