This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Alexandros Papadimitriou, University of Athens, Athens
Maria Grigoriadou, University of Athens, Athens
Georgios Gyftodimos, University of Athens, Athens
This paper describes the interactive problem solving support offered by our adaptive educational hypermedia system called MATHEMA. The general goal of the MATHEMA is the support of senior high school students or the beginners of higher education, through an interactive and constructivist environment, in learning physics (electromagnetism) individually and/or collaboratively, and to overcome their possible misconceptions and learning difficulties. Initially, a review of related work about the implemented AEHS/ITS and the didactic design principles of the MATHEMA are presented. Through the interactive problem solving, the system supports the students in solving electromagnetism problems, individually and/or collaboratively, by following an activity that is based on the experimentation with simulations, explorations, guided discovery, and collaboration didactic approaches. An experimental study with senior high school students showed that they improve their performances when following this activity. A questionnaire that we gave to the students to express their opinion about our system helped us to improve the quality of the courses.

[1] D.P. Ausubel, “The Use of Advance Organizers in the Learning and Retention of Meaningful Verbal Material,” J. Educational Psychology, vol. 51, pp. 267-272, 1960.
[2] E. Bagno and B.S. Eylon, “From Problem Solving to Knowledge Structure: An Example from Electromagnetism,” Am. J. Physics, vol. 65, pp. 726-736, 1997.
[3] N. Bajraktarevic, W. Hall, and P. Fullick, “Incorporating Learning Styles in Hypermedia Environment: Empirical Evaluation,” Proc. Workshop Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'03), pp. 41-52, 2003.
[4] N. Bajraktarevic, W. Hall, and P. Fullick, “ILASH: Incorporating Learning Strategies in Hypermedia,” Proc. 14th Conf. Hypertext and Hypermedia, pp. 145-154, 2003.
[5] I. Beaumont, “User Modeling in the Interactive Anatomy Tutoring System ANATOM-TUTOR,” J. User Modeling and User Adapted Interaction, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 21-45, 1994.
[6] S. Bennett, B. Harper, and J. Hedberg, “Designing Real-Life Cases to Support Authentic Design Activities,” Australian J. Educational Technology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2002.
[7] B.S. Bloom “Learning for Mastery,” Evaluation Comment. McGraw-Hill, 1968.
[8] C. Boyle and A.O. Encarnacion, “MetaDoc: An Adaptive Hypertext Reading System,” J. User Modeling and User Adapted Interaction, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 1994.
[9] P. Brusilovsky and L. Pesin, “ISIS-Tutor: An Adaptive Hypertext Learning Environment,” Proc. Japanese-CIS Symp. Knowledge-Based Software Eng. (JCKBSE '94), pp.83-87, 1994.
[10] P. Brusilovsky, E. Schwarz, and G. Weber, “ELM-ART: An Intelligent Tutoring System on World Wide Web,” Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (ITS '96), vol. 1086, pp. 261-269, 1996.
[11] P. Brusilovsky, E. Schwarz, and G. Weber, “A Tool for Developing Adaptive Electronic Textbooks on WWW,” Proc. World Conf. Web Soc. (WebNet '96), pp. 64-69, 1996.
[12] P. Brusilovsky and C. Peylo, “Adaptive and Intelligent Web-Based Educational Systems,” J. Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 13, pp. 156-169, 2003.
[13] R.M. Carro, E. Pulido, and P. Rodríguez, “TANGOW: A Model for Internet Based Learning,” Int'l J. Continuing Eng. Education and Life-Long Learning, vol. 11, pp. 1-2, 2001.
[14] C.A. Carver, R.A. Howard, and W.D. Lane, “Enhancing Student Learning through Hypermedia Courseware and Incorporation of Student Learning Styles,” IEEE Trans. Education, vol. 42, no. 1, pp.33-38, Feb. 1999.
[15] M.T.H. Chi, P.J. Feltovich, and R. Glaser, “Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices,” J.Cogntive Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 121-152, 1991.
[16] S. Concari, S. Giorgi, C. Cámara, and N. Giacosa, “Instructional Strategies Using Simulations for Physics Teaching,” Current Developments in Technology-Assisted Education, pp. 2042-2046, 2006.
[17] A. Cristea and A. de Mooij, “Adaptive Course Authoring: My Online Teacher,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Telecomm. (ICT '03), 2003.
[18] L. Curry, “An Organization of Learning Styles Theory and Constructs,” ERIC Document Retrieval Service, TM 830 554, 1983.
[19] P. De Bra and L. Calvi, “AHA! An Open Adaptive Hypermedia Architecture,” The New Rev. of Hypermedia and Multimedia, vol. 4, pp. 115-139, 1998.
[20] T. De Jong et al. “Self-Directed Learning in Simulation-Based Discovery Environments,” J. Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 235-246, 1998.
[21] A. diSessa, Changing Minds: Computers, Learning, and Literacy. MIT Press, 2000.
[22] R. Dunn and K. Dunn, Teaching Secondary Students through Their Individual Learning Styles. Allyn & Bacon, 1993.
[23] N. Engelberg, T. Schwenk, and L. Gruppen, “Learning Styles and Perceptions of the Value of Various Learning Modalities Before and After a Second-Year Course in Microbiology and Infections Diseases,” J. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, vol. 13, no. 4, pp.253-257, 2001.
[24] R. Farzan and P. Brusilovsky, “Social Navigation Support through Annotation-Based Group Modeling,” Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. User Modeling, pp. 463-472, 2005.
[25] R.M. Felder and L.K. Silverman, “Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education,” Eng. Education, vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 674-681, 1988.
[26] R.M. Felder and B.A. Soloman, Index of Learning Styles, , 2008.
[27] M.P. Ferraro, H.L. Álvarez, and F.G. Peñalvo, “Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Proposal Based on Learning Styles and Quality Evolution,” Proc. Conf. Adaptive Hypermedia (AH '04), pp.316-319, 2004.
[28] C. Furio and J. Guisasola, “Learning Difficulties in Learning the Concept of Electric Field,” J. Science Education, vol. 82, no. 4, pp.511-526, 1998.
[29] R.M. Gagne, “Task Analysis—Its Relation to Content Analysis,” J.Educational Psychologist, vol. 11, no. 1, 1974.
[30] F. Garzoto and A. Cristea, “ADAPT Major Design Dimensions for Educational Adaptive Hypermedia,” Proc. World Conf. Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Telecomm. (ED-MEDIA '04), pp. 1334-1339, 2004.
[31] J.E. Gilbert and C.Y. Han, “Adapting Instruction in Search of a Significant Difference,” J. Network and Computer Applications, vol. 22, pp. 149-160, 1999.
[32] A. Gogoulou, E. Gouli, and M. Grigoriadou, “Adopting Exploratory $+$ Collaborative Learning in an Adaptive CSCL Environment for Introductory Programming,” Proc. Workshop Innovations in Teaching Programming, pp. 417-424, 2003.
[33] M. Grigoriadou and K. Papanikolaou, “Learning Environments on the WEB: The Pedagogical Role of the Educational Material,” J.Themes in Education, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 145-161, 2000.
[34] M. Grigoriadou, K. Papanikolaou, G. Tsaganou, E. Gouli, A. Gogoulou, H. Kornilakis, and S. Ziovas, “Enhancing the Adaptive and Adaptable Functionality of AEHS,” Proc. Fourth Conf. Comm. and Information Technologies in Education, vol. 2, pp. 499-502, 2004.
[35] J.N. Harb, P.K. Hurt, R.E. Terry, and K.J. Williamson, Teaching Through the Cycle: Application of Learning Style Theory to Engineering Education at Brigham Young University. Brigham Young Univ. Press, 1995.
[36] H. Hohl, H.-D. Böcker, and R. Gunzenhäuser, “Hypadapter: An Adaptive Hypertext System for Exploratory Learning and Programming,” J. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, vol. 6, nos. 2/3, pp. 131-156, 1996.
[37] P. Honey and A. Mumford, The Manual of Learning Styles. Peter Honey Maidenhead, 1992.
[38] K. Höök et al. “A Glass Box Approach to Adaptive Hypermedia,” J. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, vol. 6, nos. 2/3, pp.157-184, 1996.
[39] J. Hutchinson and J. Karsnitz, Design and Problem Solving in Technology. Delmar Publishers, 1994.
[40] D.H. Jonassen and B.L. Grabowski, Handbook of Individual Differences, Learning and Instruction. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1993.
[41] Theoretical Foundation of Learning Environments, D.H. Jonassen and S.L. Land eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 2000.
[42] A. Kavcic, M. Privosnik, M. Marolt, and S. Divjak, “Educational Hypermedia System ALICE: An Evaluation of Adaptive Features,” Proc. Workshop Advances in Multimedia, Video and Signal Processing Systems, pp. 71-76, 2002.
[43] A.B. Kayes, D.C. Kayes, and D.A. Kolb, “Experiential Learning in Teams,” J. Simulations and Gaming, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 330-354, 2005.
[44] D.A. Kolb, Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1984.
[45] D.A. Kolb, Learning Style Inventory: Technical Manual. TRG Hay/McBer Training Resources Group, 1999.
[46] M. Laroussi and M. Ben Ahmed, “Providing an Adaptive Learning through the Web Case of CAMELEON,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Computer Aided Learning and Instruction in Science and Eng., pp. 411-416, 1998.
[47] A. Mabbott and S. Bull, “Student Preferences for Editing, Persuading and Negotiating the Open Learner Model,” Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 481-490, 2006.
[48] G. Magoulas, K. Papanikolaou, and M. Grigoriadou, “Adaptive Web-Based Learning: Accommodating Individual Differences through System's Application,” British J. Educational Technology, vol. 34, no. 4, 2003.
[49] D.P. Maloney, “Charged Poles,” J. Physics Education, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 310-316, 1985.
[50] D.P. Maloney, “Research on Problem Solving: Physics,” Handbook of Research in Science Teaching and Learning, D.L. Gabel, ed., pp.327-354, Macmillan, 1994.
[51] R. Mayer and M. Wittrock, “Problem-Solving Transfer,” Handbook of Educational Psychology, D. Berliner and R. Calfee, eds., pp. 47-62, Macmillan, 2006.
[52] R.E. Mayer, Learning and Instruction. Prentice Hall, Inc., 2003.
[53] L.C. McDermott, “Research and Computer-Based Instruction: Opportunity for Interaction,” Am. J. Physics, vol. 58, no. 5, pp.452-462, 1990.
[54] E. Melis, E. Andrès, J. Büdenbender, A. Frishauf, G. Goguadse, P. Libbrecht, M. Pollet, and C. Ullrich, “ActiveMath: A Web-Based Learning Environment,” Int'l J. Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 385-407, 2001.
[55] M.D. Merrill, “Component Display Theory,” Instructional Design Theories and Models, C.M. Reigeluth, ed., Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1983.
[56] A. Moore, T.J. Brailsford, and C.D. Stewart, “Personally Tailored Teaching in WHURLE Using Conditional Transclusion,” Proc. 12th ACM Conf. Hypertext and Hypermedia, 2001.
[57] W. Nejdl and M. Wolpers, “KBS Hyperbook—A Data-Driven Information System on the Web,” Proc. Eighth Int'l Word-Wide Web (WWW) Conf., 1999.
[58] A. Papadimitriou and G. Gyftodimos, “Use of Kolb's Learning Cycle through an Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System for a Constructivist Approach of Electromagnetism,” Proc. World Scientific and Eng. Academy and Soc. (WSEAS) Int'l Conf. Eng. Education, pp. 226-231, 2007.
[59] K.A. Papanikolaou, M. Grigoriadou, H. Kornilakis, and G.D. Magoulas, “Personalizing the Interaction in a Web-Based Educational Hypermedia System: The Case of INSPIRE,” User-Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 213-267, 2003.
[60] K.A. Papanikolaou, M. Grigoriadou, A. Alexi, and M. Samarakou, “Designing Project-Based Adaptive Educational Systems,” Proc. World Scientific and Eng. Academy and Soc. (WSEAS) Int'l Conf. Eng. Education, 2005.
[61] P. Paredes and P. Rodriguez, “The Application of Learning Styles in Both Individual and Collaborative Learning,” Proc. Sixth IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies, 2006.
[62] A. Pavio, Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. Oxford University Press, 1990.
[63] C. Peylo, W. Teiken, C. Rollinger, and H. Gust, “VC-Prolog-Tutor: Eine Internet-basierte Lernumgebung,” Künstliche Intelligenz, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 32-35, 1999.
[64] C.M. Reigeluth and F.S. Stein, “The Elaboration Theory of Instruction,” Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status, C.M. Reigeluth, ed., Lawrence Elrbaum Assoc., 1983.
[65] J. Roschelle and S.D. Teaslay, “The Construction of Shared Knowledge in Collaborative Problem Solving,” Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, C.E. O'Malley, ed., pp. 69-197, Springer-Verlag, 1995.
[66] D. Sampson and C. Karagiannidis, “Accommodating Learning Styles in Adaptation Logics for Personalized Learning Systems,” Proc. 14th World Conf. Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecomm. (ED-MEDIA '02), 2002.
[67] J. Snowman, R. McCown, and R. Biehler, Psychology Applied to Teaching, 12th ed. Wadsworth Publishing, 2008.
[68] M. Specht, G. Weber, S. Heitmeyer, and V. Schöch, “AST: Adaptive WWW Courseware for Statistics,” Proc. Workshop Adaptive Systems and User Modeling on the World Wide Web: Sixth Int'l Conf. User Modeling (UM '97), pp. 91-95, 1997.
[69] M. Specht and R. Klemke, “ALE—Adaptive Learning Environment,” Proc. World Conf. Word-Wide Web (WWW) and Internet, 2001.
[70] M. Specht and R. Oppermann, “ACE-Adaptive Courseware Environment,” The New Rev. of Hypermedia and Multimedia, vol. 4, pp. 141-161, 1998.
[71] M.K. Stern and B.P. Woolf, “Adaptive Content in an Online Lecture System,” Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, P. Brusilovsky, O. Stock, and C. Strapparava, eds., pp.227-238, Springer-Verlag, 2000.
[72] S. Stoyanov and N. Stoyanova, “SMILE: Intelligent Learning Environment Accumulating Personal Styles of Users,” Proc. World Conf. Word-Wide Web (WWW) and Internet (WebNet '00), pp. 974-975, 2000.
[73] M.D. Svinicki and N.M. Dixon, “The Kolb's Model Modified for Classroom Activities,” College Teaching, vol. 35, no. 4,pp 141-146, 1987.
[74] J.W. Thomas, A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning. Autodesk, 2000.
[75] E. Triantafillou, A. Pomportsis, and E. Georgiadou, “AES-CS: Adaptive Educational System Based on Cognitive Styles,” Proc. Workshop Adaptive Hypermedia (AH '02), pp. 10-20, 2002.
[76] K. Van Marcke, “A Generic Task Model for Instruction,” Proc. Workshop Instructional Design Models for Computer Based Learning Environments, pp. 1-4, 1991.
[77] J. Vassileva, “Dynamic Courseware Generation,” Comm. and Information Technologies, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 87-102, 1997.
[78] G. Weber and M. Specht, “User Modeling and Adaptive Navigation Support in WWW-Based Tutoring Systems,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. User Modeling, 1997.
[79] H.A. Witkin, C.A. Moore, D.R. Goodenough, and P.W. Cox, “Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Cognitive Styles and Their Educational Implications,” Rev. of Educational Research, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1-64, 1977.
[80] C. Wolf, “iWeaver: Towards an Interactive Web-Based Adaptive Learning Environment to Address Individual Learning Styles,” European J. Distance Learning (EuroDL), 2002/2HTMLiWeaver, 2002.
[81] D.M. Wolfe and D.A. Kolb, “Career Development, Personal Growth, and Experiential Learning,” Organizational Psychology: A Book of Readings, D.A. Kolb, I.M. Rubin, and J.M. McIntyre, eds., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1979.

Index Terms:
Adaptive educational hypermedia, interactive problem solving, learning styles, misconceptions.
Alexandros Papadimitriou, Maria Grigoriadou, Georgios Gyftodimos, "Interactive Problem Solving Support in the Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System MATHEMA," IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 93-106, April-June 2009, doi:10.1109/TLT.2009.19
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.