• C. Ramos is with the Institute of Engineering—Polytechnic of Porto, Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Centre and Department of Informatics, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal. E-mail: email@example.com.
• C. Frasson is with the Département d'Informatique et de Recherche Opérationnelle, Université de Montréal, Pavillon André-Aisenstadt, CP 6128 succ Centre-Ville, Montréal QC, H3C 3J7, Canada. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
• S. Ramachandran is with Stottler Henke Associates, Inc., 951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360, San Mateo, CA 94404. E-mail: email@example.com.
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Carlos Ramos graduated from the University of Porto, Portugal, in 1986 and received the PhD degree from the same university in 1993. He is a coordinator professor in the Department of Informatics at the Institute of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto (ISEP-IPP). His main interests are in artificial intelligence and decision support systems. He is the director of GECAD (Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Centre), the largest R&D center of the Polytechnic system in Portugal, which is dedicated to AI topics. He coordinates the Ambient Intelligence and Decision Support group of GECAD. He has about 50 publications in scientific journals and magazines and more than 200 publications in scientific conferences.
Claude Frasson received the PhD degree (doctorat d'état) in informatics in 1981 from the University of Nice, France. Since 1988, he has been a full professor in computer science at the University of Montreal and director of GRITI, a multidisciplinary group involving seven universities in Québec. He is the founder of the Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) International Conference, which is held every two years. In 1998, he was responsible for the SAFARI project, a very large project supported by the Ministry of Industry, Science, Trade and Technology of Quebec which produced about 70 graduate students. His domains of interest are on brain function applied to education and involving emotional intelligence, student modeling, and intelligent e-learning. He is the director of the HERON Laboratory, has more than 300 published papers and five books, and has served as a member of the editorial board of several scientific journals and magazines.
Sowmya Ramachandran received the PhD degree in artificial intelligence from the University of Texas at Austin. At present, she is a research scientist and project manager at Stottler Henke Associates, Inc. Her current research interest is focused on advanced educational technology, including intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), intelligent agent for simulations and serious games, and authoring tools for ITS and simulations. An avid learner herself, Dr. Ramachandran is interested in the entire spectrum of human learning, including metacognition and motivation. Experience with military and private industry gives her a unique perspective on the needs and requirements of the ultimate end-users and their constraints. She contributes expertise in AI, instructional systems, probabilistic reasoning, and knowledge management.