1. personalization in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs),
2. individual learning because it can support reflection, planning, and control by the learner, as well as their advisors, including teachers and parents,
3. collaborative work based on sharing the user model with partners and team members,
4. augmented cognition via personalized tools for finding, refinding, and remembering, and
5. reuse of the same user model by different applications for all of the above purposes.
1. what is allowed into their model,
2. which parts of the model are stored on which devices, and
3. which parts of the model should be shared with particular applications and people.
1. supporting the controls described above,
2. defining the user model ontologies and defining the components to model and their meaning,
3. reasoning about the user model,
4. distributing the user model across different machines and supporting distributed, flexible access to it, and
5. the special demands of the very long-term nature of the lifelong model.
• The author is with the Human Adaptive Interaction Research Group (CHAI), School of Information Technologies, Room 318, School of IT J12, University of Sydney, Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Manuscript received 15 Dec. 2008; accepted 2 Jan. 2009; published online 23 Jan 2009.
For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to: email@example.com, and reference IEEECS Log Number TLT-2008-12-0111.
Digital Object Identifier no. 10.1109/TLT.2009.9.
Judy Kay is a professor of computer science at the School of Information Technologies at the University of Sydney. She is a principal in the CHAI: Computer Human Adapted Interaction Research Group, which conducts both fundamental and applied research in personalization and pervasive human computer interaction. She has more than 200 publications in the areas of personalization, teaching, and learning. She has presented invited keynote addresses at major conferences, such as the 1994 User Modeling Conference (UM), the 1995 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), the 1997 International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE); the 2000 Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference (ITS), the 2006 Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems Conference (AH), and the 2008 Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference (ITS). She is an associate editor of the International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED), an associate editor of the IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies (TLT), and an editorial board member of User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research (UMUAI). She is president-elect of the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Society and on the steering committees for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) and User Modeling (UM).