This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
October-December 2008 (vol. 1 no. 4)
pp. 199-214
Julita Vassileva, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon
We are teaching a new generation of students, cradled in technologies, communication and abundance of information. The implications are that we need to focus the design of learning technologies to support social learning in context. Instead of designing technologies that “teach” the learner, the new social learning technologies will perform three main roles: 1) support the learner in finding the right content (right for the context, for the particular learner, for the specific purpose of the learner, right pedagogically); 2) support learners to connect with the right people (again right for the context, learner, purpose, educational goal etc.), and 3) motivate / incentivize people to learn. In the pursuit of such environments, new areas of sciences become relevant as a source of methods and techniques: social psychology, economic / game theory, multi-agent systems. The paper illustrates how social learning technologies can be designed using some existing and emerging technologies: ontologies vs. social tagging, exploratory search, collaborative vs. self-managed social recommendations, trust and reputation mechanisms, mechanism design and social visualization.

[1] G. Adomavicius and A. Tuzhilin, “Toward the Next Generation of Recommender Systems: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art and Possible Extensions,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 734-749, June 2005.
[2] R. Baker, A.T. Corbett, and K.R. Koedinger, “Detecting Student Misuse of Intelligent Tutoring Systems,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 531-540, 2004.
[3] C.H. Brooks and N. Montanez, “An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Tagging in Blogs,” Proc. Spring Symp. Computational Approaches to Analyzing Weblogs, Mar. 2006.
[4] C.H. Brooks and N. Montanez, “Improved Annotation of the Blogopshere via Autotagging and Hierarchical Clustering,” Proc. 15th World Wide Web Conf. (WWW '06), May 2006.
[5] H. Bretzke and J. Vassileva, “Motivating Cooperation in Peer to Peer Networks,” Proc. User Modeling (UM '03,) pp. 218-227, 2003.
[6] P. Brusilovsky and J. Vassileva , “Course Sequencing Techniques for Large Scale Web-Based Education,” Int'l J. Continuing Eng. Education and Life-Long Learning, vol. 13, nos. 1/2, pp. 75-94, 2003.
[7] S. Bryant, A. Forte, and A. Bruckman, “Becoming Wikipedian: Transformation of Participation in a Collaborative Online Encyclopedia,” Proc. GROUP Int'l Conf. Supporting Group Work, pp. 1-10, 2005.
[8] R. Cheng and J. Vassileva, “Design and Evaluation of an Adaptive Incentive Mechanism for Sustained Educational Online Communities,” User Modelling and User-Adapted Interaction, vol. 16, nos. 2/3, pp. 321-348, 2006.
[9] J. Collins, J. Greer, V. Kumar, G. McCalla, P. Meagher, and R. Tkach, “Inspectable User Models for Just in Time Workplace Training,” Proc. User Modelling Conf. (UM '97), A. Jameson, C.Paris, and C. Tasso, eds., pp. 327-337, 1997.
[10] E. Fehr and K. Schmidt, “Theory of Fairness, Competition and Cooperation,” Quarterly J. Economics, vol. 114, pp. 817-868, 1999.
[11] L. Festinger, “A Theory of Social Comparison Processes,” Human Relations, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 117-140, 1954.
[12] A. Forte and A. Bruckman , “Why Do People Write for Wikipedia? Incentives to Contribute to Open-Content Publishing,” Proc. GROUP 05 Workshop: Sustaining Community: The Role and Design of Incentive Mechanisms in Online Systems, 2005.
[13] A. Forte and A. Bruckman, “Information Literacy in the Age of Wikipedia,” Proc. Symp. Learning and Research in the Web 2 Era: Opportunities for Research, to appear in Proc. Int'l Conf. Learning Sciences, LiteracyWikipedia.pdf , 2008.
[14] J. Greer, G. McCalla, J. Collins, V. Kumar, P. Meagher, and J. Vassileva, “Supporting Peer Help and Collaboration in Distributed Workplace Environments,” Int'l J. AI and Education, no. 9, pp.159-177, 1998.
[15] T. Gruber, “Where the Social Web Meets the Semantic Web,” Keynote Presentation at the Fifth Int'l Semantic Web Conf.,, Nov. 2006.
[16] J.L. Herlocker, J. Konstan, and J. Riedl, “Explaining Collaborative Filtering Recommendations,” Proc. ACM Conf. Computer Supported Collaborative Work, pp. 241-250, 2000.
[17] H.-U. Hoppe, “The Use of Multiple Student Modelling to Parameterise Group Learning,” Proc. Artificial Intelligence and Education (AIED '95), J. Greer, ed., pp. 234-241, 1995.
[18] C.O. Houle, The Inquiring Mind. Univ. Wisconsin Press 1988
[19] Indratmo, J. Vassileva, and C. Gutwin, “Exploring Blog Archives with Interactive Visualization,” Proc. Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI '08), pp. 28-30, May 2008.
[20] J. Jacobs, Dark Age Ahead. Random House, 2004.
[21] S. Johnson, Everything Bad Is Good for You. Penguin, 2005.
[22] T. Karrer, “Corporate Learning Long Tail and Attention Crisis: ELearning,” corporate-learning-long-tail-and.html , 2008.
[23] E. Kuiper, M. Volman, and J. Terwel, “The Web as an Information Resource in K-12 Education: Strategies for Supporting Students Searching and Processing Information,” Rev. Educational Research, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 285-328, 2005.
[24] C. Lampe, “Ratings Use in an Online Discussion System: The Slashdot Case,” PhD thesis, School of Information, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2006.
[25] S.D. Lewitt and S. Dubner, Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist's Guide to the Hidden Side of Everything. Harper Collins, 2005.
[26] A. Maslow, Motivation and Personality, C. McReynolds, ed., third ed. Harper and Row, Inc. 1987.
[27] S. Mantyka, The Math Plague: How to Survive School Mathematics, MayT Consulting Corp., 2007.
[28] G. McCalla, J. Vassileva, J. Greer, and S. Bull, “Active Learner Modelling,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS '00), G. Gautier, C. Frasson, and K. VanLehn, eds., pp. 53-62, 2000.
[29] G. McCalla, “The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-Based Capture and Use of Information About Learners,” J. Interactive Media in Education, vol. 7, 2004.
[30] R. Mizoguchi and J. Bourdeau, “Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome Common AI-Ed Problems,” Int'l J. Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 107-121, 2000.
[31] X. Niu, G.I. McCalla, and J. Vassileva, “Purpose-Based Expert Finding in a Portfolio Management System,” Computational Intelligence J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 548-561, 2004.
[32] T. O'Reilly, “Web 2.0 Compact Definition: Trying Again,” web-20-compact.html, 2007.
[33] “Tim O'Reilly on the Future of Social Media,” Talk of the Nation Science Friday, php?storyId=98499899 , 2008.
[34] Y. Ren, R.E. Kraut, and S. Kiesler, “Applying Common Identity and Bond Theory to Design of Online Communities,” Organization Studies, in press.
[35] G. Small and G. Vorgan, iBrain: Surviving the Technological Alteration of the Mondern Mind. HarperColins, 2008.
[36] J. Vassileva and L. Sun, “Evolving Social Visualization Design Aimed at Increasing Participation in a Online Community,” Int'l J. Cooperative Information Systems (IJCIS), vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 443-466, 2008.
[37] J. Vassileva and L. Sun, “Using Community Visualization to Stimulate Participation in Online Communities,” e-Service J., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 3-40, 2007.
[38] J. Vassileva, G. McCalla, and J. Greer, “Multi-Agent Multi-User Modeling,” User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 179-210, 2003.
[39] Y. Wang and J. Vassileva, “Trust-Based Community Formation in Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Networks,” Proc. IEEE/WIC/ACM Int'l Conf. Web Intelligence (WI '04), 2004.
[40] Y. Wang and J. Vassileva, “Toward Trust and Reputation Based Web Service Selection: A Survey,” Int'l Trans. Systems Science and Applications, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 118-132, 2007.
[41] Y. Wang and J. Vassileva, “Super-Consumer Based Reputation Management for Web Service Systems,” Proc. Second IEEE Int'l Conf. Digital Ecosystems and Technologies (IEEE-DEST '08), Feb. 2008.
[42] G. Weber and P. Brusilovsky, “ELM-ART: An Adaptive Versatile System for Web-Based Instruction,” Int'l J. Artificial Intelligence in Education, special issue on adaptive and intelligent Web-based educational systems, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 351-384, 2001.
[43] A.S. Webster and J. Vassileva, “Visualizing Personal Relations in Online Communities,” Proc. Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH '06), pp. 223-233, 2006.
[44] A.S. Webster and J. Vassileva, “Push-Poll Recommender System: Supporting Word of Mouth,” Proc. User Modelling (UM '07,) pp.25-29, 2007.
[45] A.S. Webster and J. Vassileva, “The KeepUp Recommender System,” Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Recommender Systems (RecSys '07), pp. 173-177, 2007.
[46] A.S. Webster, “Visible Relations in Online Communities: Modeling and Using Social Networks,” MSc thesis, Univ. of Saskatchewan, etd-09192007-204935, 2007.
[47] D. Weinberger, Everything Is Miscellaneous: The Power of the New Digital Disorder. Holt Paperbacks, 2007.

Index Terms:
Economics, Accreditation, Computer and Information Science Education, Computer Uses in Education, Games, Internet Applications, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Visualization
Julita Vassileva, "Toward Social Learning Environments," IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 199-214, Oct.-Dec. 2008, doi:10.1109/TLT.2009.4
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.