The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - April-June (2008 vol.1)
pp: 131-143
Andreas Harrer , Catholic University Eichstätt-Ingolstadt , Eichstätt
Niels Pinkwart , Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld
Bruce M. McLaren , Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
Oliver Scheuer , Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz, Saarbrücken
ABSTRACT
For many practical learning scenarios, the integrated use of more than one learning tool is educationally beneficial. In these cases, interoperability between learning tools - getting the pieces to talk to one another in a coherent, well-founded manner - is a crucial requirement that is often hard to achieve. This paper describes a re-usable software design that aims at the integration of independent learning tools into one collaborative learning scenario. We motivate the usefulness and expressiveness of combining several learning tools into one integrated learning experience. Based on this we sketch software design principles that integrate several existing components into a joint technical framework. The feasibility of the approach, which we name the "Scalable Adapter" design pattern, is shown with several implementation examples from different educational technology domains, including Intelligent Tutoring Systems and collaborative learning environments.
INDEX TERMS
Miscellaneous, Group and Organization Interfaces, Miscellaneous
CITATION
Andreas Harrer, Niels Pinkwart, Bruce M. McLaren, Oliver Scheuer, "The Scalable Adapter Design Pattern: Enabling Interoperability Between Educational Software Tools", IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol.1, no. 2, pp. 131-143, April-June 2008, doi:10.1109/TLT.2008.18
REFERENCES
[1] K.R. Koedinger, J.R. Anderson, W.H. Hadley, and M.A. Mark, “Intelligent Tutoring Goes to School in the Big City,” Int'l J. Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 8, pp. 30-43, 1997.
[2] N. Pinkwart, “Collaborative Modeling in Graph Based Environments,” PhD dissertation, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 2005.
[3] W. van Joolingen, A. Lazonder, T. de Jong, E. Savelsbergh, and S. Manlove, “Co-Lab: Research and Development of an Online Learning Environment for Collaborative Scientific Discovery Learning,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 21, pp. 671-688, 2005.
[4] M. Jansen, M. Oelinger, K. Hoeksema, and H. Hoppe, “Exploring the Use of Mobile Devices to Facilitate Educational Interoperability Around Digitally Enhanced Experiments,” Proc. Second IEEE Int'l Workshop Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE '04), J. Roschelle, T.-W. Chan, Kinshuk, and S.J.H. Yang, eds., pp. 83-90, 2004.
[5] J. Roschelle, C. DiGiano, A. Repenning, J. Phillips, N. Jackiw, and D. Suthers, “Developing Educational Software Components,” Computer, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 50-58, 1999.
[6] J. Roschelle, C. DiGiano, and M. Chung, “Reusability and Interoperability of Tools for Mathematics Learning: Lessons from the ESCOT Project,” Proc. Int'l Congress on Intelligent Systems and Applications (ISA '00), F. Haghdy and F. Kurfess, eds., pp. 664-669, 2000.
[7] S. Ritter and K. Koedinger, “An Architecture for Plug-In Tutor Agents,” Int'l J. Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 7, pp. 315-347, 1996.
[8] E. Walker, K. Koedinger, B. McLaren, and N. Rummel, “Cognitive Tutors as Research Platforms: Extending an Established Tutoring System for Collaborative and Metacognitive Experimentation,” Proc. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS '06), M. Ikeda, K.D. Ashley, and T.-W. Chan, eds., pp. 207-216, 2006.
[9] L. Bollen, A. Harrer, U. Hoppe, and W. van Joolingen, “A Broker Architecture for Integration of Heterogeneous Applications for Inquiry Learning,” Proc. Seventh IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT '07), J. Spector, D. Sampson, T. Okamoto, Kinshuk, S. Cerri, M. Ueno, and A. Kasihara, eds., pp. 15-17, 2007.
[10] SAIL, Scalable Architecture for Interactive Learning Project Home Page, http://docs.telscenter.org/display/SAILHome , 2007.
[11] WISE, Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment, Supported by the NationalScience Foundation NSF, http:/wise.berkeley.edu, Aug. 2005.
[12] S. Zeini, N. Malzahn, and U. Hoppe, “Kooperationswerkzeuge IM Kontext Virtualisierter Arbeit,” Virtuelle Organisationen und neue Medien, Gemeinschaften in Neuen Medien (GeNeMe), 2004.
[13] E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, and J. Vlissides, Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Addison-Wesley Professional, 1995.
[14] F. Buschmann, R. Meunier, H. Rohnert, P. Sommerlad, M. Stal, P. Sommerlad, and M. Stal, Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture, Volume 1: A System of Patterns. John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
[15] N. Carriero and D. Gelernter, “Linda in Context,” Comm. ACM, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 444-458, 1989.
[16] P. Brusilovsky, “Knowledgetree: A Distributed Architecture for Adaptive E-learning,” Proc. 13th Int'l World Wide Web Conf. Alternate Track Papers & Posters (WWW Alt. '04), pp. 104-113, 2004.
[17] M. Jansen, “Matchmaker—A Framework to Support Collaborative Java Applications,” Proc. 11th Conf. Artificial Intelligence in Education: Shaping the Future of Learning through Intelligent Technologies, U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo, and J. Kay, eds., pp. 529-530, 2003.
[18] A. Harrer, B. McLaren, E. Walker, L. Bollen, and J. Sewall, “Collaboration and Cognitive Tutoring: Integration, Empirical Results, and Future Directions,” Artificial Intelligence in Education—Supporting Learning through Intelligent and Socially Informed Technology, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, C.-K. Looi, G. McCalla, B. Bredeweg, and J.Breuker, eds., vol. 125, pp. 266-273, IOS Press, 2005.
[19] K. Koedinger, V. Aleven, N. Heffernan, B.M. McLaren, and M. Hockenberry, “Opening the Door to Non-Programmers: Authoring Intelligent Tutor Behaviour by Demonstration,” Proc. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), 2004.
[20] V. Aleven, B.M. McLaren, J. Sewall, and K. Koedinger, “Example-Tracing Tutors: A New Paradigm for Intelligent Tutoring Systems,” Int'l J. Artificial Intelligence in Education, special issue on authoring systems for ITSs, in press, 2008.
[21] H. Lieberman, Your Wish Is My Command: Programming by Example. Morgan Kaufmann, 2001.
[22] A. Harrer, B. McLaren, E. Walker, L. Bollen, and J. Sewall, “Creating Cognitive Tutors for Collaborative Learning: Steps toward Realization,” User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The J. Personalization Research, special issue on user modeling tosupport groups, communities, and collaboration, vol. 16, pp.175-209, 2006.
[23] D.L. Gabel, R.D. Sherwood, and L. Enochs, “Problem-Solving Skills of High School Chemistry Students,” J. Research in Science Teaching, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 221-233, 1984.
[24] J.L. Fasching and B.L. Erickson, “Group Discussions in the Chemistry Classroom and the Problem-Solving Skills of Students,” J. Chemical Education, vol. 62, pp. 842-848, 1985.
[25] R.B. Kozma, “The Use of Multiple Representations and the Social Construction of Understanding in Chemistry,” Innovations in Science and Math. Education: Advanced Designs for Technologies of Learning, M.J.R. Kozma, ed., pp. 11-46, Erlbaum, 2008.
[26] B.M. McLaren, N. Rummel, D. Tsovaltzi, I. Braun, O. Scheuer, A. Harrer, and N. Pinkwart, “The CoChemEx Project: Conceptual Chemistry Learning through Experimentation and Adaptive Collaboration,” Proc. Workshop Emerging Technologies for Inquiry Based Learning in Science at AIED, submitted, 2007.
[27] D. Tsovaltzi, N. Rummel, N. Pinkwart, A. Harrer, O. Scheuer, I. Braun, and B.M. McLaren, “Cochemex: Supporting Conceptual Chemistry Learning via Computer-Mediated Collaboration Scripts,” Proc. European Conf. Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL '08), 2008.
[28] T. de Jong and W. van Joolingen, “Scientific Discovery Learning with Computer Simulations of Conceptual Domains,” Rev. Educational Research, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 179-201, 1998.
[29] D. Yaron, K. Evans, and M. Karabinos, “Scenes and Labs Supporting Online Chemistry,” Proc. 83rd Ann. AERA Nat'l Conf., 2003.
[30] A. Harrer, N. Malzahn, K. Hoeksema, and U. Hoppe, “Learning Design Engines as Remote Control to Learning Support Environments,” J. Interactive Media in Education, special issue on advances in learning design, 2005.
[31] CopperCore, Coppercore, the IMS Learning Design Engine, http:/www.coppercore.org, May 2005.
[32] D. Tsovaltzi, B.M. McLaren, N. Rummel, O. Scheuer, A. Harrer, N. Pinkwart, and I. Braun, “Cochemex: Supporting Conceptual Chemistry Learning via Computer-Mediated Collaborative Scripts,” Proc. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), 2008.
[33] CIEL, Collaborative Inquiry and Experiential Learning Project Home Page, http:/ciel.gw.utwente.nl/, 2007.
17 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool