1. a camera gives a global or a detailed view of an ES or an ISS module,
2. an ES comprises an ISS module,
3. an ES is placed next to another ES,
4. an ISS module is next to another ISS module, or
5. a camera is attached to an ISS module.
• P. Fournier-Viger and R. Nkambou are with the Department of Computer Science, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case postale 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com.
• A. Mayers is with the Department of Computer Science, University of Sherbrooke, 2500 boul. de l'Université, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Manuscript received 22 Mar. 2008; revised 3 July 2008; accepted 20 July 2008; published online 1 Aug. 2008.
For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to: email@example.com, and reference IEEECS Log Number TLTSI-2008-03-0033.
Digital Object Identifier no. 10.1109/TLT.2008.13.
Philippe Fournier-Viger received the BSc and MSc degrees in computer science from the University of Sherbrooke in 2003 and 2005, respectively. He is currently pursuing a PhD degree in cognitive computer science in the Department of Computer Science, Université du Québec à Montréal. He is a member of the GDAC research team. His work is funded by a NSERC Canadian Graduate Scholarship grant. His research interests include e-learning, intelligent tutoring systems, knowledge representation, cognitive modeling, spatial cognition and educational data mining. He is a student member of the IEEE, the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), and the International Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Society.
Roger Nkambou received the PhD degree in computer science from the University of Montreal in 1996. He is currently a professor of computer science in the Department of Computer Science, Université du Québec à Montréal, and the director of the Knowledge Management Research (GDAC) Laboratory ( http://gdac.dinfo. uqam.ca). His research interests include knowledge representation, intelligent tutoring systems, intelligent software agents, ontology engineering, student modeling, and affective computing. He also serves as a member of the program committee of the most important international conferences in artificial intelligence in education. He is a member of the IEEE and the IEEE Computer Society.
André Mayers has a PhD degree. He is a professor of computer science in the Department of Computer Science, University of Sherbrooke. He founded ASTUS ( http://astus. usherbrooke.ca/), a research group for Intelligent Tutoring Systems, which mainly focuses on knowledge representation structures that simultaneously make easier the acquisition of knowledge by students, the identification of their plans during problem solving activities, and the diagnosis of knowledge acquisition. He is also a member of PROSPECTUS ( http://prospectus.usherbrooke.ca/), a research group on data mining.