Subscribe

Issue No.01 - January-June (2013 vol.1)

pp: 1

Kashif Bilal , Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND, USA

Marc Manzano , BCDS Lab. (204-205), Univ. of Girona, Girona, Spain

Samee U. Khan , Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND, USA

Eusebi Calle , BCDS Lab. (204-205), Univ. of Girona, Girona, Spain

Keqin Li , Dept. of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York, New Paltz, NY, USA

Albert Y. Zomaya , Sch. of Inf. Technol., Univ. of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TCC.2013.6

ABSTRACT

Data centers being an architectural and functional block of cloud computing are integral to the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector. Cloud computing is rigorously utilized by various domains, such as agriculture, nuclear science, smart grids, healthcare, and search engines for research, data storage, and analysis. A Data Center Network (DCN) constitutes the communicational backbone of a data center, ascertaining the performance boundaries for cloud infrastructure. The DCN needs to be robust to failures and uncertainties to deliver the required Quality of Service (QoS) level and satisfy Service Level Agreement (SLA). In this paper, we analyze robustness of the state-of-the-art DCNs. Our major contributions are: (a) we present multi-layered graph modeling of various DCNs; (b) we study the classical robustness metrics considering various failure scenarios to perform a comparative analysis; (c) we present the inadequacy of the classical network robustness metrics to appropriately evaluate the DCN robustness; and (d) we propose new procedures to quantify the DCN robustness. Currently, there is no detailed study available centering the DCN robustness. Therefore, we believe that this study will lay a firm foundation for the future DCN robustness research.

INDEX TERMS

Data processing, Information technology, Computer architecture, Quality of service, Servers, Network topology, Cloud computing,network analysis, Data processing, Information technology, Computer architecture, Quality of service, Servers, Network topology, structural robustness, Cloud computing, data center networks, multilayer graphs

CITATION

Kashif Bilal, Marc Manzano, Samee U. Khan, Eusebi Calle, Keqin Li, Albert Y. Zomaya, "On the Characterization of the Structural Robustness of Data Center Networks",

*IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing*, vol.1, no. 1, pp. 1, January-June 2013, doi:10.1109/TCC.2013.6REFERENCES

- [1] K. Bilal, S.U.R. Malik, O. Khalid, A. Hameed, E. Alvarez, V. Wijaysekara, R. Irfan, S. Shrestha, D. Dwivedy, M. Ali, U.S. Khan, A. Abbas, N. Jalil, and S.U. Khan, "A Taxonomy and Survey on Green Data Center Networks,"
Future Generation Computer Systems, 2013.- [2] P. Mel and T. Grance, "The Nist Definition of Cloud Computing," http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/ 800-145SP800-145. pdf, 2011.
- [3] S. Ali, A.A. Maciejewski, H.J. Siegel, and J. Kim, "Definition of a Robustness Metric for Resource Allocation,"
Proc. Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., p. 10, 2003.- [4] K. Bilal, S.U. Khan, L. Zhang, H. Li, K. Hayat, S.A. Madani, N. Min-Allah, L. Wang, D. Chen, M. Iqbal, C. Xu, and A.Y. Zomaya, "Quantitative Comparisons of the State-of-the-Art Data Center Architectures,"
Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, vol. 25, pp. 1771-1783, 2012.- [5] A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. Maltz, and P. Patel, "The Cost of a Cloud: Research Problems in Data Center Networks,"
ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 68-79, 2009.- [6]
ITProPortal, http://www.itproportal.com/2012/07/12o2- outage-latest-string-major-it- infrastructure-failures /, 2012.- [7] M. Manzano, E. Calle, and D. Harle, "Quantitative and Qualitative Network Robustness Analysis under Different Multiple Failure Scenarios,"
Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Reliable Networks Design and Modeling (RNDM '11), pp. 1-7, 2011.- [8] A. Sydney, C. Scoglio, P. Schumm, and R.E. Kooij, "Elasticity: Topological Characterization of Robustness in Complex Networks,"
Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Bio-Inspired Models of Network, pp. 19:1-19:8, 2008.- [9] A.H. Dekker and B.D. Colbert, "Network Robustness and Graph Topology,"
Proc. 27th Australasian Conf. Computer Science, pp. 359-368, 2004.- [10] J. Dong and S. Horvath, "Understanding Network Concepts in Modules,"
BMC Systems Biology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-24, 2007.- [11] A.H. Dekker and B.D. Colbert, "The Symmetry Ratio of a Network,"
Proc. Australasian Symp. Theory of Computing, pp. 13-20, 2005.- [12] C. Shannon and D. Moore, "The Spread of the Witty Worm,"
IEEE Security and Privacy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 46-50, July 2004.- [13] P. Mahadevan, D. Krioukov, M. Fomenkov, X. Dimitropoulos, K.C. Claffy, and A. Vahdat, "The Internet AS-Level Topology: Three Data Sources and One Definitive Metric,"
SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 36, pp. 17-26, Jan. 2006.- [14] D. Chakrabarti, Y. Wang, C. Wang, J. Leskovec, and C. Faloutsos, "Epidemic Thresholds in Real Networks,"
ACM Trans. Information and System Security, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1-26, 2008.- [15] A. Jamakovic and S. Uhlig, "Influence of the Network Structure on Robustness,"
Proc. 15th IEEE Int'l Conf. Networks (ICON '07), pp. 278-283, 2007.- [16]
Cisco Data Center Infrastructure 2.5 Design Guide, Cisco, 2010.- [17] M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, "A Scalable, Commodity Data Center Network Architecture,"
ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 63-74, 2008.- [18] C. Guo, H. Wu, K. Tan, L. Shi, Y. Zhang, and S. Lu, "DCell: A Scalable and Fault-Tolerant Network Structure for Data Centers,"
SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 75-86, Aug. 2008.- [19] L. Gyarmati and T.A. Trinh, "Scafida: A Scale-Free Network Inspired Data Center Architecture,"
ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 4-12, 2010.- [20] L. Gyarmati, A. Gulyás, B. Sonkoly, T.A. Trinh, and G. Biczók, "Free-Scaling Your Data Center,"
Computer Networks, vol. 57, pp. 1758-1773, 2013.- [21] J. Kim, W.J. Dally, and D. Abts, "Flattened Butterfly: A Cost-Efficient Topology for High-Radix Networks,"
ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 126-137, 2007.- [22] D. Li, C. Guo, H. Wu, K. Tan, Y. Zhang, and S. Lu, "FiConn: Using Backup Port for Server Interconnection in Data Centers,"
Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2276-2285, 2009.- [23] K. Bilal, S.U. Khan, J. Kolodziej, L. Zhang, K. Hayat, S. Madani, N. Min-Allah, L. Wang, and D. Chen, "A Comparative Study of Data Center Network Architectures,"
Proc. 26th European Conf. Modeling and Simulation, pp. 526-532, May 2012.- [24] M. Kurant and P. Thiran, "Layered Complex Networks,"
Physical Rev. Letters, vol. 96, p. 138701, 2006.- [25] X. Dong, P. Frossard, P. Vandergheynst, and N. Nefedov, "Clustering with Multi-Layer Graphs: A Spectral Perspective,"
CoRR, vol. abs/1106.2233, 2011.- [26] C. Clos, "A Study of Non-Blocking Switching Networks,"
Bell System Technical J., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 406-424, 1953.- [27] S. Neumayer and E. Modiano, "Network Reliability with Geographically Correlated Failures,"
Proc. INFOCOM, pp. 1658-1666, 2010.- [28] L.C. Freeman, "A Set of Measures of Centrality Based Upon Betweenness,"
Sociometry, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 35-41, 1977.- [29] B. Bollobás,
Random Graphs. vol. 73, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001.- [30] P.V. Mieghem, C. Doerr, H. Wang, J.M. Hernandez, D. Hutchison, M. Karaliopoulos, and R.E. Kooij, "A Framework for Computing Topological Network Robustness," 2010.
- [31] M. Youssef, R. Kooij, and C. Scoglio, "Viral Conductance: Quantifying the Robustness of Networks with Respect to Spread of Epidemics,"
J. Computer Science, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 286-298, 2011.- [32] E. Weisstein, http://mathworld.wolfram.comGraphDiameter. html , 2013.
- [33] P. Gill, N. Jain, and N. Nagappan, "Understanding Network Failures in Data Centers: Measurement Analysis, and Implications,"
Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2011.- [34] R. Albert, H. Jeong, and A. Barabasi, "Error and Attack Tolerance of Complex Networks,"
Letters to Nature, vol. 406, pp. 378-382, 2000.- [35] J. Guillaume, M. Latapy, and C. Magnien, "Comparison of Failures and Attacks on Random and Scale-free Networks,"
Proc. Eight Int'l Conf. Principles of Distributed Systems, 2005.- [36] P. Holme, B. Kim, C. Yoon, and S. Han, "Attack Vulnerability of Complex Networks,"
Physical Rev. E, vol. 65, no. 5, p. 056109, 2002.- [37] M. Manzano, V. Torres-Padrosa, and E. Calle, "Vulnerability of Core Networks under Different Epidemic Attacks,"
Proc. Fourth Int'l Workshop Reliable Networks Design and Modeling, 2012.- [38] A. Broder, R. Kumar, F. Maghoul, P. Raghavan, S. Rajagopalan, R. Stata, A. Tomkins, and J. Wiener, "Graph Structure in the Web,"
Computer Networks, vol. 33, nos. 1-6, pp. 309-320, 2000.- [39] D. Callaway, M. Newman, S. Strogatz, and D. Watts, "Network Robustness and Fragility: Percolation on Random Graphs,"
Physical Rev. Letters, vol. 85, no. 25, 2000.- [40] R. Cohen, K. Erez, D. ben Avraham, and S. Havlin, "Resilience of the Internet to Random Breakdowns,"
Physical Rev. Letters, vol. 85, no. 21, p. 3, 2000.- [41] S.N. Dorogovtsev, J.F.F. Mendes, and A.N. Samukhin, "Giant Strongly Connected Component of Directed Networks,"
Physical Rev. E, vol. 64, no. 2 Pt 2, p. 4, 2001.- [42] M. Newman, S. Strogatz, and D. Watts, "Random Graphs with Arbitrary Degree Distributions and their Applications,"
Physical Rev. E, vol. 64, no. 2, p. 19, 2000.- [43] B. Luque and R. Solé, "Phase Transitions in Random Networks: Simple Analytic Determination of Critical Points,"
Physical Rev. E, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 257-260, 1997. |