This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Cyberwar Thresholds and Effects
September/October 2011 (vol. 9 no. 5)
pp. 23-29
James A. Lewis, Center for Strategic and International Studies
Network technology use and cyberspace exploitation for intelligence and attack have become a normal part of military activity. Questions persist as to the appropriate framework for considering this new mode of conflict, but to a degree, these questions result from weak data, imprecise terminology, and a certain reluctance to abandon the notion that cyberconflict is unique, rather than just another mode of attack. This article reviews cyberattack in armed conflicts, thresholds for considering cyberexploits as the use of force, existing armed conflict laws' applicability to cyberattack, and the political implications of cyberexploits' strategic versus tactical applications.

1. J. Keegan, A History of Warfare, Vintage Books, 1994.
2. C. von Clausewitz, On War, M. Howard, and P. Paret eds., Princeton Univ. Press, 1976.
3. J. Meserve, "Mouse Click Could Plunge City into Darkness, Experts Say," CNN, 27 Sept. 2007; http://articles.cnn.com/2007-09-27/uspower.at.risk_1_generator-experiment-cnn?_s=PM:US .
4. R.A. Clarke, and R.K. Knake, Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do about It, HarperCollins, 2010.
5. Hague IV Annex, Article 23; www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebART195-200033?OpenDocument .
6. North Atlantic Treaty, NATO, 4 Apr. 1949; www.nato.int/cps/en/natoliveofficial_texts_17120.htm .

Index Terms:
Cyberconflict, cyberwar, cyberattack, thresholds
Citation:
James A. Lewis, "Cyberwar Thresholds and Effects," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 23-29, Sept.-Oct. 2011, doi:10.1109/MSP.2011.25
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.