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Cyberwar Thresholds and Effects
September/October 2011 (vol. 9 no. 5)
pp. 23-29
James A. Lewis, Center for Strategic and International Studies
Network technology use and cyberspace exploitation for intelligence and attack have become a normal part of military activity. Questions persist as to the appropriate framework for considering this new mode of conflict, but to a degree, these questions result from weak data, imprecise terminology, and a certain reluctance to abandon the notion that cyberconflict is unique, rather than just another mode of attack. This article reviews cyberattack in armed conflicts, thresholds for considering cyberexploits as the use of force, existing armed conflict laws' applicability to cyberattack, and the political implications of cyberexploits' strategic versus tactical applications.

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Index Terms:
Cyberconflict, cyberwar, cyberattack, thresholds
James A. Lewis, "Cyberwar Thresholds and Effects," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 23-29, Sept.-Oct. 2011, doi:10.1109/MSP.2011.25
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