• the WANK worm, which infiltrated NASA's network in 1989 in protest of nuclear weapons and NASA's use of radioactive plutonium to fuel the Galileo probe's booster system;
• Strano Network's one-hour "netstrike" against French government websites in 1995 to protest French government policies on nuclear and social issues;
• the Electronic Disturbance Theatre's "Web sit-ins" against websites in Mexico, the US, and elsewhere starting in 1998 to support the Mexican Zapatistas, and later other political and social causes;
• the Internet Black Tigers' "suicide email bombings" against Sri Lankan embassies to counter government electronic propaganda; and
• Web defacements by Team Spl0it and other antiwar hackers calling for an end to the Kosovo conflict in 1999.
• Indonesia in 1998 over the treatment of Chinese living in Jakarta;
• the US in 1999 after the Belgrade embassy bombing, and in 2001 following the death of a Chinese F-8 fighter pilot whose jet collided with a US EP-3 reconnaissance plane;
• Taiwan in 1999 following Taiwanese President Li Deng-Hui's advocacy for a "two-state theory," and in 2000 in conjunction with Taiwanese elections;
• Japan in 2000 over its handling of the Nanjing Massacre during WWII, and in 2004 over the disputed Diaoyu Islands; and
• Iran in 2010 in retaliation for the Iranian Cyber Army hijacking China's search engine, Baidu.
• After the KGB tried to infiltrate a Canadian company and steal software for controlling the Soviet's Trans-Siberian gas pipeline, the US planted a logic bomb in the code; the malware is thought to be responsible for the 1982 pipeline explosion.
• Israel purportedly used a cyberattack to disable Syrian air defenses prior to launching an airstrike against Syrian nuclear facilities in 2007.
• In 2010, the Stuxnet worm reportedly damaged centrifuges at Iran's nuclear enrichment facility at Natanz. Although we don't know the attack source, the level of sophistication suggests a nation-state. Israel, the US, China, and Russia have all been named as possibilities.