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Degradation and Subversion through Subsystem Attacks
July/August 2010 (vol. 8 no. 4)
pp. 70-73
Daniel Bilar, University of New Orleans
Attacks targeting something or someone indirectly—nth order attacks against end systems--have occurred on a large scale in real life. It goes to the heart of how conflicts between open societies and their enemies are waged: trust subsystems. Trust helps lower tangible and intangible transaction costs between individuals, corporations, and the state. Members of "high-trust" societies like the United States leverage trust beyond family ties to form efficient civic and economic organizations. Because trust permeates every facet of open societies, it's a very easy assumption for malicious actors to violate.

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Index Terms:
nth order attack, Highly Optimized Tolerance, assumption violation, trust, attack, subsystem, systems, security
Daniel Bilar, "Degradation and Subversion through Subsystem Attacks," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 70-73, July-Aug. 2010, doi:10.1109/MSP.2010.122
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