• Did the author incur any actual loss? That is, would the person performing the piracy have actually paid for a legitimate copy if they hadn't been able to pirate it? I've seen some discussions that indicate that upwards of 80 percent of the instances of piracy might not have resulted in a sale if the piracy had been prevented.
• Given this assumption, did the visibility those pirated copies provided result in greater market awareness of the product and a resulting increase in legitimate sales? If attained, were those increased sales enough to offset the remaining instances of piracy (20 percent in this example) that didn't buy because they could get it for free? Could it be said that in some cases piracy actually increases revenue?