• changes in the industry,
• underestimates of the number of small companies, and
• the differences in small group development methods from the standard models.
• Management is so richly structured in large organizations that it is difficult to adapt to the small. The specialized functions, reporting arrangements, and metrics are hard to scale down.
• Software architecture reflects organization architecture. In software engineering circles, this is known Conway's law, which states, "Organizations which design systems are constrained to produce systems which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations." 3,4
• Many methods such as inspection and testing were created to work on larger, nondistributed groups. These methods need serious reworking to adapt them to smaller groups and groups where the members are not physically colocated.
Mauri Laitenen has more than 29 years of experience in software development and software management. He was one of the founders of Autodesk, Inc., a world leader in the development of computer aided design and modeling software. At Autodesk, he held positions as director of Quality Assurance and director of Software Development. As software development director, he managed the development of the AutoCAD group of products. Previously, he held software management positions at Control Data and Information Systems Design. Currently, he has a consultancy in Lake Tahoe, California. He has written for a number of publications, including CACM and is a co-author with Mohamed Fayad of Transition to Object-Oriented Software Development, Wiley & Sons, August 1998. He is a member of ACM and IEEE Computer Society. Contact him at Laitenen Consulting, PO Box 61, Tahoe City, CA 96145; firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mohamed Fayad is the J.D. Edwards Professor, Computer Science & Engineering, at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. He received an MS and a PhD in computer science from the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis. He coauthored OO Enterprise Frameworks and Software Stability (John Wiley and Sons, New York). He is a senior member of the IEEE, a senior member of the IEEE Computer Society, a member of the ACM, and editorial advisor and a columnist for The Communications of the ACM. Contact him at the Dept. of Computer Science and Eng., Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Ferguson Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588-0115; email@example.com; www.cse.unl.edu/~fayad.
Robert Ward is director of product engineering at Ofoto.com. He has more than 15 years experience as a software engineer, primarily developing business applications. He is a member of the IEEE and the ACM. Contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org.