The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - Jan.-Feb. (2013 vol.33)
pp: 22-31
Sudharsanan Srinivasan , University of California, Santa Barbara
Yongbo Tang , University of California, Santa Barbara
Graham Read , University of Surrey
Nadir Hossain , University of Surrey
Di Liang , HP Labs
Stephen J. Sweeney , University of Surrey
John E. Bowers , University of California, Santa Barbara
ABSTRACT
Decreasing energy limits for data transport have resulted in efforts to reduce energy consumption in optical interconnects. The authors introduce three possible integration techniques for realizing a hybrid silicon transmitter on a single chip with distributed feedback (DFB) lasers and electro-absorption modulators. They review the current bottlenecks and techniques for further reducing threshold current and increasing the wall-plug efficiency of these lasers.
INDEX TERMS
Optical interconnections, Modulation, Threshold current, Energy consumption, Silicon, Distributed feedback devices, Optical transmitters, Feedback, Quantum well lasers, quantum well lasers, optical interconnects, silicon devices, optical transmitters, interconnections, distributed feedback devices, waveguide modulators
CITATION
Sudharsanan Srinivasan, Yongbo Tang, Graham Read, Nadir Hossain, Di Liang, Stephen J. Sweeney, John E. Bowers, "Hybrid Silicon Devices for Energy-Efficient Optical Transmitters", IEEE Micro, vol.33, no. 1, pp. 22-31, Jan.-Feb. 2013, doi:10.1109/MM.2012.89
REFERENCES
1. D.A.B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE, vol. 97, no. 7, 2009, pp. 1166-1185.
2. R.S. Tucker, "Green Optical Communications—Part 1: Energy Limitations in Transport," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 17, no. 2, 2011, pp. 245-260.
3. D. Liang and J.E. Bowers, "Recent Progress in Lasers on Silicon," Nature Photonics, vol. 4, 2010, doi:10.1038/nphoton.2010.167.
4. D. Liang and J.E. Bowers, "Highly Efficient Vertical Outgassing Channels for Low-Temperature Wafer Bonding on the Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate," J. Vacuum Science and Technology B, vol. 26, no. 4, 2008, pp. 1560-1568.
5. D. Liang et al., "Uniformity Study of Wafer-Scale InP-to-Silicon Hybrid Integration," Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, vol. 103, no. 1, 2011, pp. 213-218.
6. A.W. Fang et al., "Electrically Pumped Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Laser," Optics Express, vol. 14, no. 20, 2006, pp. 9203-9210.
7. G. Duan et al., "Integrated Hybrid III-V/Si Laser and Transmitter," Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), 2012; https://biblio.ugent.be/publication3007079 .
8. T. Hong et al., "A Selective-Area Metal Bonding InGaAsP–Si Laser," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 15, 2010, pp. 1141-1143.
9. H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, Distributed Feedback Laser Diodes and Optical Tunable Filters, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, chap. 3 and 5.
10. M.N. Sysak et al., "Hybrid Silicon Laser Technology: A Thermal Perspective," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 17, no. 6, 2011, pp. 1490-1498.
11. D. Liang et al., "Fabrication of Silicon-on-Diamond Substrate and Low-Loss Optical Waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 23, no. 10, 2011, pp. 657-659.
12. S. Srinivasan et al., "Design of Phase-Shifted Hybrid Silicon Distributed Feedback Lasers," Optics Express, vol. 19, no. 10, 2011, pp. 9255-9261.
13. S.J. Sweeney et al., "The Effect of Temperature Dependent Processes on the Performance of 1.5-μm Compressively Strained InGaAs(P) MQW Semiconductor Diode Lasers," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 10, no. 8, 1998, pp. 1076-1078.
14. S.A. Sayid et al., "Thermal Characteristics of 1.55-μm InGaAlAs Quantum Well Buried Heterostructure Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, vol. 46, no. 5, 2010, pp. 700-705.
15. S. Srinivasan and J.E. Bowers, "Reliability of Hybrid III-V on Si Distributed Feedback Lasers," Proc. 23rd IEEE Int'l Semiconductor Laser Conf. (ISLC), IEEE, 2012, pp. 10-11.
16. X. Zheng et al., "Ultra-Low-Energy All-CMOS Modulator Integrated with Driver," Optics Express, vol. 18, no. 3, 2010, pp. 3059-3070.
17. R. Lewén et al., "Segmented Transmission-Line Electroabsorption Modulators," J. Lightwave Technology, vol. 22, no. 3, 2004, pp. 172-179.
18. M. Chacinski et al., "ETDM Transmitter Module for 100-Gb/s Ethernet," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 2, 2010, pp. 70-72.
19. H. Fukano et al., "Very-Low-Driving-Voltage Electroabsorption Modulators Operating at 40 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, no. 5, 2006, pp. 2219-2224.
20. Y. Tang, J.D. Peters, and J.E. Bowers, "Over 67 GHz Bandwidth Hybrid Silicon Electroabsorption Modulator with Asymmetric Segmented Electrode for 1.3 μm Transmission," Optics Express, vol. 20, no. 10, 2012, pp. 11,529-11,535.
21. Y. Tang, J.D. Peters, and J.E. Bowers, "40 Gb/s, 1-Volt Hybrid Silicon Electroabsorption Modulator for Wide Temperature Range Operation," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 24, no. 19, 2012, pp. 1689-1692.
22. P. Pintus et al., "Low-Loss Hybrid Silicon Tapers," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Group IV Photonics., IEEE, 2011, pp. 59-61.
23. H.-H. Chang et al., "Integrated Hybrid Silicon Triplexer," Optics Express, vol. 318, no. 23, 2010, pp. 23,891-23,899.
24. S.R. Jain et al., "Integrated Hybrid Silicon Transmitters," J. Lightwave Technology, vol. 30, no. 5, 2012, pp. 671-678.
32 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool