The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - September/October (2009 vol.29)
pp: 30-45
Tran Nguyen Bao Anh , Singapore Engineering Center
Su-Lim Tan , Nanyang Technological University
<p>Real-time operating systems have gained popularity in microcontroller- and processor-based embedded system design. This article discusses differences between RTOSs and generic operating systems, the advantages and disadvantages of using RTOSs for small microcontroller system development, and the benchmarking methods used for RTOSs. Benchmarking results for four RTOSs show no clear winner, with each RTOS performing better on some criteria than others.</p>
kernel, operating system, real-time systems, RTOS, RTOS benchmarking
Tran Nguyen Bao Anh, Su-Lim Tan, "Real-Time Operating Systems for Small Microcontrollers", IEEE Micro, vol.29, no. 5, pp. 30-45, September/October 2009, doi:10.1109/MM.2009.86
1. D. Kalinsky, "Basic Concepts of Real-Time Operating Systems," Linux Devices, Nov. 2003; .
2. K. Sakamura and H. Takada, "μITRON for Small-Scale Embedded Systems," IEEE Micro, vol. 15, no. 6, Nov./Dec. 1995, pp. 46-54.
3. J. Ganssle, "The Challenges of Real-Time Programming," Embedded System Programming, vol. 11, July 1997, pp. 20-26.
4. R. Nass, "Annual Study Uncovers the Embedded Market," Embedded Systems Design,2 Sept. 2007; 201803499;jsessionid=NGMOMOIGE5ZNNQE1GHOSKHWATMY32JVN?printable=true .
5. K. Baynes et al., "The Performance and Energy Consumption of Embedded Real-time Operating Systems," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 11, 2003, pp. 1454-1469.
6. J.J. Labrosse, MicroC/OS-II: The Real-Time Kernel, R&D Books, 1999.
7. T-Engine Forum, "μTKernel specification, 1.00.00," Mar. 2007; http:/
8. R. Barry, "A Portable, Open Source Mini Real-Time Kernel," Oct. 2007; http:/
9. K. Curtis, "Doing Embedded Multitasking with Small Microcontrollers, Part 2," Embedded System Design, Dec. 2006; 196701565?_requestid=242226.
10. A. Garcia-Martinez, J. F. Conde, and A. Vina, "A Comprehensive Approach in Performance Evaluation for Modern Real-Time Operating Systems," Proc. 22nd EuroMicro Conf., IEEE CS Press, 1996, p. 61.
11. R.P. Kar and K. Porter, "Rhealstone: A Real-Time Benchmarking Proposal," Dr. Dobb's J. of Software Tools, vol. 14, no. 2, Feb. 1989, pp. 14-22.
12. K.M. Sacha, "Measuring the Real-Time Operating System Performance," Proc. 7th EuroMicro Workshop Real-Time Systems, IEEE CS Press, 1995, pp. 34-40.
13. K. Sakamura and H. Takada, μITRON 4.0 Specifications, TRON Assoc., 2002; .
14. EmbOS Real-Time Operating System, User &Reference Guide, Segger Microcontroller, 2008; uploads/ productDocsembOS_Generic.pdf.
15. A.J. Massa, Embedded Software Development with eCos, Prentice Hall, 2002.
16. P. Gai et al., E.R.I.K.A.: Embedded Real-tIme Kernel Architecture; ERIKA Educational User Manual, Realtime System (RETIS) Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy, 2004; http://erika.sssup.itdownload.shtml#Doc.
17. G.C. Buttazzo, "Hartik: A Hard Real-Time Kernel for Programming Robot Tasks with Explicit Time Constraints and Guaranteed Execution," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, IEEE Press, 1993, pp. 404-409.
18. R. Chrabieh, "Operating System with Priority Functions and Priority Objects," TechOnline, Feb. 2005; 193101942.
19. G. Hawley, "Selecting a Real-Time Operating System," Embedded System Design, vol. 12, no. 3, 1999,
20. M. Timmerman and L. Perneel, "Understanding RTOS Technology and Markets," Dedicated Systems RTOS Evaluation project report, 2005; displaypr.asp?PRID=8972.
21. R. Bannatyne and G. Viot, "Introduction to Microcontrollers, Part 2," Northcon Conf. Proc., IEEE Press, 1998, pp. 250-254.
22. B. Millard, D. Miller, and C. Wu, "Support for ADA Intertask Communication in a Message-Based Distributed Operating System," Computers and Comm. Conf. Proc., IEEE Press, 1991, pp. 219-225.
23. M16c/62P Group Hardware Manual, Renesas Technology, 2006; mpumcurej09b0185_16c62pthm.pdf.
24. Renesas Technology, "μTKernel for M16C Source Code and Documentation," 2007; misc/software/M30626FJPGP_ micro_tkernel/ softwareindex.html.
25. I. Ripoll et al., "RTOS State of the Art Analysis," tech. report, Open Components for Embedded Real-time Applications (OCERA) project, 2002.
26. D. Kalinsky, "Asynchronous Direct Message Passing Rapidly Gains Popularity," Embedded Control Europe, Nov. 2004, p. 32.
20 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool