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Issue No.02 - March/April (1999 vol.19)
pp: 24-36
The third generation Alpha microprocessor from Compaq Computer Corporation (formerly Digital Equipment) is the 21264. This microprocessor can execute 2.0-2.4 billion instructions per second with a 500-600 MHz cycle time in a 0.35 um CMOS process, resulting in the industry-leading performance of 30+ SPECint95 and 58+ SPECfp95 in early system offerings. This paper focuses on the overall 21264 architecture, as well as many of the particular architectural techniques used to achieve these performance levels. These include many forms of out-of-order and speculative execution as well as a high-performance memory system.
R. E. Kessler, "The Alpha 21264 Microprocessor", IEEE Micro, vol.19, no. 2, pp. 24-36, March/April 1999, doi:10.1109/40.755465
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