• The first clause of the IEEE Code of Ethics ( www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/aboutus/ethics/code.html) focuses on responsibilities to the public (specifically, "to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health, and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment").
• The first "moral imperative" of the ACM Code of Ethics ( www.acm.org/about/code-of-ethics/#CONTENTS) states the obligation to "contribute to society and human well-being," and the second imperative is to "avoid harm to others."
• The Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice ( http://seeri.etsu.edu/Codes/TheSECode.htm), approved by both the IEEE and the ACM, has as its first principle, "software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest."
• The Association of Information Technology Professionals has a less broadly stated clause about members' obligations to society in its Code of Ethics ( www.aitp.org/organization/about/ethics/ethics.jsp), with the oath, "I have an obligation to society and will participate to the best of my ability in the dissemination of knowledge pertaining to the general development and understanding of information processing. Further, I shall not use knowledge of a confidential nature to further my personal interest, nor shall I violate the privacy and confidentiality of information entrusted to me or to which I may gain access."
• ABET, the organization that accredits academic engineering programs, also promotes a Code of Ethics for all engineers ( http://wadsworth.com/philosophy_d/templates/student_resources/0534605796_harris/cases/Codes/abet.htm) in which the first "fundamental canon" states that "engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties."