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Network Address Translation: Extending the Internet Address Space
July/August 2010 (vol. 14 no. 4)
pp. 66-70
Dan Wing, Cisco
Network Address Translation (NAT) and Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT) are widely used to separate networks and share IPv4 addresses. They're valuable tools for network administrators and help with the imminent exhaustion of IPv4 address space and the transition to IPv6. This article surveys recent standardization efforts in this area.

1. P. Tsuchiya, "The IP Network Address Translator (NAT): Preliminary Design," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Apr. 1991.
2. J. Rosenberg, R. Mahy, and P. Matthews, "Traversal Using Relays around NAT (TURN): Relay Extensions to Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, July 2009.
3. J. Rosenberg, "Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A Protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT) Traversal for Offer/Answer Protocols," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Oct. 2007.
4. J. Goldberg, M. Westerlund, and T. Zeng, "A Network Address Translator (NAT) Traversal Mechanism for Media Controlled by Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Jan. 2010.
5. J. Beda et al., XEP-0176: Jingle ICE-UDP Transport Method, XMPP Standards Foundation, June 2009; http://xmpp.org/extensionsxep-0176.html.
6. A. Durand ed., "Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4 Exhaustion," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Mar. 2010.
7. M. Ford et al., eds., "Issues with IP Address Sharing," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Mar. 2010.
8. W. Townsley and O. Troan, "IPv6 via IPv4 Service Provider Networks '6rd,'" IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Mar. 2010.
9. F. Baker et al., "Framework for IPv4/IPv6 Translation," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Mar. 2010.
10. X. Li, C. Bao, and F. Baker, "IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Apr. 2010.
11. M. Bagnulo, P. Matthews, and I. van Beijnum, "Stateful NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Mar. 2010.
12. M. Bagnulo et al., "DNS64: DNS Extensions for Network Address Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Mar. 2010.
13. J. Arkko and L. Eggert, "Scalable Operation of Address Translators with Per-Interface Bindings," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Feb. 2010.
14. D. Miles and M. Townsley eds., "Layer2-Aware NAT," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Mar. 2009.
15. M. Wasserman, and F. Baker, "IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Address Translation (NAT66)," IETF Internet draft, work in progress, Nov. 2008.

Index Terms:
NAT, Network Address Translation, NAT44, NAT64, IPv6 transition, translation, IPv6, IPv4
Citation:
Dan Wing, "Network Address Translation: Extending the Internet Address Space," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 66-70, July-Aug. 2010, doi:10.1109/MIC.2010.96
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