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Issue No.03 - May/June (2009 vol.13)
pp: 40-47
Ali C. Begen , Cisco
ABSTRACT
In a multicast IPTV distribution network, each channel is offered in a different multicast session, and the IP set-top box joins the respective session when the viewer tunes to a new channel. Due to delays associated with network components and encoding schemes, the time difference between the channel-change request and when the new channel shows up on the screen can be annoyingly large. This article examines the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) in IPTV networks and describes how RTP and its control protocol can help reduce channel-change times.
INDEX TERMS
IPTV, multicast video, Real-time Transport Protocol, RTP, retransmission, rapid channel change
CITATION
Ali C. Begen, Neil Glazebrook, William Ver Steeg, "Reducing Channel-Change Times with the Real-Time Transport Protocol", IEEE Internet Computing, vol.13, no. 3, pp. 40-47, May/June 2009, doi:10.1109/MIC.2009.67
REFERENCES
1. A.C. Begen, N. Glazebrook, and W.V. Steeg, "A Unified Approach for Repairing Packet Loss and Accelerating Channel Changes in Multicast IPTV," Proc. Consumer Comm. and Networking Conf. (CCNC 09), IEEE Press, 2009, pp. 1–6.
2. RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications, IETF RFC 3550, July 2003; www.ietf.org/rfcrfc3550.txt.
3. User Datagram Protocol, IETF RFC 768, Aug. 1980; www.ietf.org/rfcrfc768.txt.
4. A General Mechanism for RTP Header Extensions, IETF RFC 5285, July 2008; www.ietf.org/rfcrfc5285.txt.
5. RTP Control Protocol Extended Reports (RTCP XR), IETF RFC 3611, Nov. 2003; www.ietf.org/rfcrfc3611.txt.
6. Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information: Systems, ITU-T H.222.0, May 2006.
7. RTP Payload Format for MPEG1/MPEG2 Video, IETF RFC 2250, Jan. 1998; www.ietf.org/rfcrfc2250.txt.
8. IPTV Packet Loss Issue Report, ATIS-0800005, Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions, 2006; www.atis.org/docstoreproduct.aspx?id=22659 .
9. "NACK-Oriented Reliable Multicast (NORM) Protocol," IETF Internet draft, Mar. 2009; http://tools.ietf.org/htmldraft-ietf-rmt-pi-norm-revised-09 .
10. A.C. Begen, "Error Control for IPTV over xDSL Networks," Proc. Consumer Comm. and Networking Conf. (CCNC 08), IEEE Press, 2008, pp. 632–637.
11. "DVB Application Layer FEC Evaluations," Digital Video Broadcasting document A115-TM 3783, 2007; www.dvb.org/technology/standardsa115.tm3783.AL-FEC_Evaluation.pdf .
12. "RTCP Extensions for Single-Source Multicast Sessions with Unicast Feedback," IETF Internet draft, Mar. 2009; http://tools.ietf.org/htmldraft-ietf-avt-rtcpssm-18 .
13. "Unicast-Based Rapid Synchronization with RTP Multi-cast Sessions," IETF Internet draft, Mar. 2009; http://tools.ietf.org/htmldraft-versteeg-avt-rapid-synchronization-for-rtp-02 .
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