• perception, where elements of the current situation are observed, comprehension, where information obtained through observation is combined and interpreted, and
• projection, where sufficient information and understanding exists to make predictions about impending events.
• sensors (such as robotic vision systems for monitoring incident sites, localization, and other personal sensing technologies to track the state of responders during rescue operations, as well as satellite imagery for damage assessment);
• better tools that support seamless information flow among organizations for coordination and collaboration between diverse entities;
• improved geographic information system (GIS) tools for evacuation modeling;
• Web-based technologies for resource management (including coordinating donations and relief operations as well as portals that support family reunification); and
• social media as a major tool to disseminate emergency information and as a collaboration platform, to crowd source for rapid interpretation of data for tasks such as damage and need assessment.