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The Practitioner's Cycles, Part 1: Actual World Problems
March/April 2010 (vol. 25 no. 2)
pp. 4-9
Steven V. Deal, Deal Corp.
Robert R. Hoffman, Institute for Human and Machine Cognition

This essay focuses on the forces and constraints of procurement versus the goals of human centering, especially the creation of intelligent technologies that are usable, useful, and understandable. The procurement process tends to de-emphasize these goals and focus on adherence to rules and regulations. As a result, software system development processes are misaligned with the challenges faced by development teams. This misalignment between "actual world problems" and normative documentation repeatedly results in failed systems. A real-life practitioner's account illustrates this point by describing how a group of individuals, acting on their own initiative and at their own risk, short-circuited the rules and constraints of the procurement process to turn a procurement process failure into a success.

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Index Terms:
artificial intelligence, human-centered computing, software system development process, procurement, practitioner, actual world problem
Steven V. Deal, Robert R. Hoffman, "The Practitioner's Cycles, Part 1: Actual World Problems," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 4-9, March-April 2010, doi:10.1109/MIS.2010.54
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